Features of actinidia, timing of flowering and ripening
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Actinidia species suitable for growing in cold climates
“... in the future (she) will completely displace both grapes and gooseberries from our gardens, because the taste qualities of berries of various varieties of actinidia are so good and varied that when compared with berries of not only gooseberries, but also grapes, they turn out to be of higher quality, not speaking already about the remarkable aroma, that in grapes, and even more so in gooseberries, there is nothing to look for. "
I live in the city of Lida in Belarus. Recently, in our magazines, a lot of attention has been paid to plants that are promising for growing on the territory of the Republic of Belarus.
One of them is actinidia. It would seem that this is a novelty. But at the same time, it is reliably known that traces of the genus actinidia were found in brown coal deposits in the south of Belarus, which means that actinidia, an endemic of the Primorye Territory, simply returns to its ancestral home. At the same time, in publications, all attention is paid to the description of only one type of actinidia - actinidia Kolomikt, which, indeed, can be grown throughout the territory of our republic.
This actinidia can withstand temperatures down to -35 ° C, and in terms of vitamin C content is second only to rose hips - it contains from 0.5 to 1.7%, but it also has a number of disadvantages:
- its berries are small and not transportable, therefore local processing is necessary;
- it has a low yield, in fact a ten-year-old bush gives up to 1.5 kg of berries;
- the ripening of the crop is not simultaneous, after ripening the fruits fall off and quickly deteriorate, although they ripen without losing their qualities, if they are prematurely removed 3-7 days before full ripeness.
But at the same time, now in most of the territory of Belarus, in particular, on the territory of the Grodno and Minsk regions, and even more on the territory of Brest and Gomel, other types of actinidia and their hybrids are growing with great success, which give amazingly tasty fruits, in which a large amount of vitamin C - 0.1-0.12%, they contain potassium, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, iron, as well as zinc, selenium, bromine, copper.
The chemical composition of actinidia fruits indicates that they are a source of biologically active substances and have medicinal properties. The aerial part, especially its leaf mass, is also a source of useful substances, since it contains a significant amount of ascorbic acid, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, therefore, it can be used as a source of vitamin supplements, creating various teas and herbal remedies.
Particularly promising in this respect is actinidia polygamum, which is already used in Japan in many medicinal preparations. Studies have shown that the leaf mass of female plants accumulates biologically active substances more than male plants.
Features of actinidia
Hybrid variety of actinidia Original 14A
Actinidia is a liana that grows very quickly and can be used as an ornamental plant for vertical gardening, and the variegation of some of its species further decorates the garden. By the way, variegation is manifested in actinidia Kolomikta and actinidia Polygamum.
About two weeks before flowering, white tips appear on some of their leaves, and then they turn crimson. And this manifests itself in both female and male plants. After flowering, the leaves of these actinidia turn green again. This phenomenon is also observed on hybrid plants that were grown by crossing the Actinidia Argut and the Actinidia Purple.
Actinidia is a dioecious plant, although there have been cases where fruits are set with only female plants. Theoretically, up to 1% of plants grown from seed can be monoecious, and a good monoecious plant is of great value for creating self-fertile actinidia varieties.
Actinidia has one interesting feature - it does not have physiological fruit abscission, all the fruits that have been pollinated grow to maturity. The growth of actinidia shoots begins in late April or early May at an average daily temperature of + 4 ... + 5 ° C, when a green cone of folded leaves appears from a bud hidden under the bark of a plant. At this time, return frosts are very dangerous for the plant.
The flowering of actinidia species occurs in different periods - first, around the end of May, Kolomikta blooms, after 12-15 days, when she has already set fruits, Arguta and Purple bloom, and after, after 5-7 days, Polygama blooms, therefore, the pollination between species Actinidia plants do not occur. Actinidia lianas have very long vessels of wood, and the shoots themselves have almost endless growth, hence the large increase in vegetative shoots. For example, in the Argut actinidia, it reaches 4-6 m, while the top of the vegetative shoot is in constant circular motion. If there is support, the top of the shoot wraps around it in a counterclockwise direction.
The fruiting actinidia plant has three types of shoots:
- vegetative - they grow from dormant buds on perennial wood or from the root system, perform a supporting function;
- generative - they perform the function of fruiting and are formed on an annual branch, have a length of 10-15 cm;
- generative-vegetative - they perform both a supporting function and a fruiting function, they are formed on the growth of the previous year.
Therefore, when planting actinidia in a permanent place, it is necessary to provide an appropriate space for plant growth and place them no closer than 3-3.5 m from each other (for actinidia Kolomikt, you can leave 2.5-3 m).
The timing of flowering and ripening of actinidia fruits
Fruits of actinidia Kiev large-fruited
It should be noted that not all plant buds bloom at the same time, about one third of the buds remain dormant, which ensures annual fruiting of plants even if previously opened buds or young branches are damaged by late spring frosts.
Male plants begin their development, as well as flowering 1-2 days earlier than female ones. Flower buds are laid in the leaf axils on young shoots of the current year, and, therefore, fruiting occurs on the shoots of the current year.
If you have a desire to receive information about actinidia, about its breeding, please call (Lida): (8-10-375) 01561-574-56, mob. tel .: 00375-444814998, email: [email protected] - Victor Ivanovich Guzenko.
Read the next part. Planting actinidia →
experienced gardener, Lida
Read also about actinidia
• Actinidia - general information and features of cultivation
• Cultivation of actinidia kolomikt at their summer cottage
• Billets from actinidia
• Cultivation and varieties of actinidia
• Actinidia in my garden
• Decorative vines of the North-West zone
What is actinidia and how to grow a vine in your own garden
- Full photo
Description of actinidia arguta
Reproduction of actinidia
Features of growing and caring for actinidia
Actinidia are woody lianas that belong to the Actinidia family. Not many people know that the kiwi that we love so much is one of the varieties of this genus and has the full name Actinidia kiwi (Chinese, gourmet). Kiwi is a bulky tree-like vines native to China.
Annuals and perennials for the garden in pink
There are more than 150 shades of pink in the palette, and there are even more plants that bloom in this range. Therefore, to create a rose garden, you have a lot of room for action and experimentation.
You can plant annuals, and each season make out a new composition, or give preference to perennial crops, which bloom more and more magnificently over the years. And they can also be skillfully combined.
Therefore, select plants of different shades of one or more species. In a sunny place, for example, plant medium-sized antirrinums, and around them balsams and petunias. They will bloom profusely and continuously. For partial shade, astilbe, anemone, primrose and dicenter are better suited.
Among the annuals, there are plants that are planted with seedlings or sown in the ground. The former include, in addition to balsam and petunia, lobelia, verbena, ornamental cabbage, levkoy and cleoma. You can sow sweet peas, lavatera, godetia and cosmea right on the flower bed.
And biennials have many varieties with pink flowers. Pay attention to the lush mallow and Turkish carnation, the humble daisy, the viola and the bell, or the mysterious foxglove, which can be either monochromatic or with small specks.
And, of course, perennials bloom in various shades of pink. This is the queen of the garden - a rose, a delicate hyacinth, a lush peony, and even lilies of the valley have flowers in this range (variety Rozea). Dicentra, badan, astilba, lily, armeria, dahlia, chrysanthemum, daylily, monarda, subulate phlox - this is not a complete list of applicants for a place in the rose garden.
Features of growing and caring for actinidia
For actinidia, a bright, high area is suitable, it is good if it is a slope with a water drain.
The most favorable soils: fertile, loamy, with a good humus horizon. Liana will be larger if the soil is acidic or slightly acidic; it is strongly discouraged to plant actinidia on floating clay soil. It is better to plant actinidia in April, for the winter we cover the seedlings with a large layer of fallen leaves. When planting, a hole is dug about 50 cm, the width between the rows should be about 4 meters, between the bushes about 3. Immediately after planting, the plant must be protected from direct sun.
Immediately after planting, the bush is watered with 5-7 liters of water, then abundant, regular watering is provided.
In hot weather, it is advisable to spray the liana. Before planting, about 10 kg of organic fertilizer is applied to the pit, mineral fertilizers are applied twice a year, at the end of April and in mid-September. The fertilizer should not contain chlorine.
If we consider leaving by month, the calendar will look like this:
- In April, shelters are removed, rooted cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
- In May, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, the soil is loosened, the roots are mulched, and the shoots are tied up.
- In June, the soil is loosened, the earth is poured, cuttings are cut and rooted.
- In July, the soil is loosened, watered, tied up shoots, remove unnecessary shoots.
- In August, the soil is loosened, the harvest is harvested, and fertilizers are applied after harvesting the fruits.
- In September, they harvest, remove diseased fruits.
- In October-November, plants are cut, young plants are covered for the winter.
Actinidia is resistant to pests and is rarely affected by disease. Only at the end of summer, dark spots can appear on the leaves; to combat this problem, the leaves are simply removed. Only cats are the main enemy of actinidia, they can sneak into the garden and gnaw young shoots, as well as dig in the roots.
More information can be found in the video.
"Exotics" in our gardens and orchards - cultivation features
Melon berry, or Tzimbalo - exotic winter vitamins
Flowers with the smell of chocolate
Sooner or later, but every summer resident has a great desire to grow something more interesting than traditional tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes. If you have such an idea, we congratulate you! After all, this means that you have achieved a certain skill in cultivating cultures close to your region. It's time to take on more challenging tasks! This heading was created so that you learn as much as possible about exotic plants that can be grown in your garden and vegetable garden. Perhaps some plants are already successfully growing on your site, but you have not heard about others. We will be glad if our work will help you to diversify your garden or vegetable garden with new plants.
How is the Chinese cucumber different from the traditional ones in our beds? Is it possible to grow smoking tobacco on a personal plot? What kind of vegetable is okra and what is it eaten with? Is chayote a fruit or a vegetable? Articles in our section are useful information about various exotic plants: how to plant, how to care for and how to use. You will be surprised how many exotics can be successfully cultivated today in the climate of the middle zone. Kiwi, persimmon, almonds, which were previously considered to be the cultures of exclusively southern regions, today surprise no one in the gardens of the Moscow region. But we will also tell you about those plants, the fruits of which you will not find in any supermarket in Moscow, but you can grow them in the country. Do you know such exotic plants? Share their photo and name on our Forum. Perhaps this "miracle" will be the next publication of our subheading.
Another amazing vine is Chinese magnolia vine. If supported, it can reach a height of 4 m or more. The plant blooms in the second half of May - early June. Its white waxy flowers, 2 cm in diameter, exude a strong lemon scent. Unlike actinidia, the same plant contains both male and female flowers. Green leaves of lemongrass turn yellow-orange by autumn. The fruits ripen in September-October. Although the bright red clusters of berries do not crumble until frost and birds do not eat them, it is better to harvest the crop four to five days before fully ripening, while the fruits are still hard. They are scattered in a thin layer, and they ripen quickly. The first harvest can be obtained within 5-6 years after planting the vines. From one plant - up to 2-3 kg of berries.
Schizandra fruits are rich in essential oils, organic acids, vitamins C and R. They also contain schizandrin, which has a stimulating effect on the cardiovascular and central nervous system. Schisandra relieves drowsiness, lethargy, increases efficiency, improves mood.
It is useful for hypotensive patients, but lemongrass is dangerous for hypertensive patients. Lemongrass is not eaten the way we usually eat berries.
Lemongrass bloom. At a young age, lemongrass is shade-tolerant, then its need for light increases.
Planting actinidia seedlings
It is very difficult to acquire actinidia seedlings, since the culture is only gaining popularity among gardeners and summer residents. Only 30 varieties of culture are included in the State Register of the country.
All varieties of actinidia are dioecious, that is, there is a division into male and female. That is why several seedlings are planted on the site at the same time. It is optimal to plant 1 male on 3 female copies.
The flowers of male plants do not have pistils and do not set fruit. Nevertheless, they are directly involved in the pollination of female vines.
When choosing seedlings, you should ask:
- What breeding method was used to obtain planting material. A seedling grown as a result of seed reproduction does not retain its maternal characteristics and will enter the fruiting period no earlier than in 6-10 years. If the growing point is a bud, the seedling is obtained as a result of seed reproduction and you should think about the advisability of buying it. When receiving planting material from a cutting, it will have a characteristic short trunk with a developed lateral shoot
- The "sex" of the seedling - you should buy a male and a female at the same time.
At the time of purchase, special attention is paid to the root system - it must be completely placed in the soil. Direct sun exposure, high temperature, mechanical action can damage young roots, thereby destroying the plant or reducing the survival rate by several times.
The optimal age for disembarkation is 3 years.
When choosing a seedling, the type of plant is also of great importance. The most popular and easiest to grow is the type of kolomik - a liana with high frost resistance. It has very small fruits and a low fruiting rate - 2-3 kg per bush.
- Womens- Pineapple, Compact, September
- Men's - Snowball.
Arguta is another type of vine with larger fruits and more abundant fruiting. But such varieties are only suitable for cultivation in the southern regions of the country.
For full pollination for 5-10 female specimens, one male is enough.
Optimal season and planting dates
Young plants of actinidia are planted either in early spring or late autumn.
Spring planting is best done when the soil temperature is at least 12 degrees. The plant is thermophilic and may die during spring frosts.
Professional gardeners recommend planting a young crop:
- Spring period before the start of sap flow. Cuttings or seedlings are harvested in the fall and stored in a cold room, and after the snow melts, they are planted in a permanent place.
- Late spring or early summer, after the end of the flowering period. Young plants with a closed root system are planted in a permanent place and protected from sunlight until new buds form
- Autumn period - a few weeks before the onset of frost. In many regions of the country, autumn planting is impossible due to the harsh climate and frequent autumn rains.
Planting plants should also be tied to the climatic features of the region:
- In the south of the country, where dry springs and hot summers are observed, the best period is autumn from early September to mid-October.
- In cold regions, where winter comes relatively early, actinidia is planted in late April to mid-May.
Soil composition and planting site
The culture is very demanding on the composition of the soil. Prefers acidic or slightly acidic soil with pH = 4 - 5. With timely fertilization, actinidia grows well in neutral soils. The most difficult soil for growing lianas is clay soils with close groundwater.
A prerequisite for planting a plant is abundant drainage, which prevents stagnation of moisture and decay of the root system. That is why it is advisable to cultivate the culture on the slopes.
General site requirements:
- For fruit ripening, abundant light is needed - the plant is planted in sun-drenched areas
- A few weeks before disembarkation, pits of 50x50x50 cm should be prepared
- Drainage is mandatory. Drainage materials - bricks, expanded clay, pebbles
- The bottom must be covered with a nutrient mixture - 10 liters of humus, 50 g of charcoal, 250 g of superphosphate.
Features of the root system of actinidia:
- Kolomikta is the owner of a taproot that goes into a depth of 1.5 m.The root system of the plant is abundantly overgrown with adventitious roots, which are located at a depth of 40 cm and in a radius of up to 1 m.That is why kolomikta should be planted at a distance of 1.5 - 2 , 5 m.
- Arguta is a large vine with a powerful root system, which requires 2 to 5 sq. m.
Since the homeland of the natural growth of the plant is the taiga - an area with high humidity and diffused light, it is worth planting seedlings in similar places.
Good predecessors and neighbors of actinidia
It is best to plant actinidia after black currant, which loosens the soil and does not deplete it. The proximity to the plant also has a beneficial effect on:
- Legumes, which maintain the natural balance of the soil, help to retain moisture in it
- Petunias, calendula, which not only improve the soil, but also perform a decorating function.
It is not recommended to plant actinidia next to:
- Mature fruit trees, in particular with apple trees, since their powerful root system drains the soil very much.
- Young trees, as the vine grows rapidly and strong shoots can damage delicate plants.
Up to 3 years of age, the plant needs shading from direct sun.
Pre-landing activities include:
- Pruning dry and damaged sapling lashes
- Root treatment in clay solution
- Abundant watering of pits for planting.
The root collar of the plant should be above ground level. When filling up a hole, it is worth making sure that there are no voids that negatively affect the root system. The land around the creeper is compacted and covered with mulch.
Stages of planting a seedling:
- A pit measuring 50x50x50 cm is prepared 14 days before disembarkation
- The bottom is covered with drainage material
- A fertile layer is laid, which consists of humus, 250 g of superphosphate, 100 ammonium nitrate and 30 g of ash
- Pour a pile of non-nutritious soil in the hole and install a previously treated seedling
- Cover with remaining soil
- Pour abundantly with water and mulch the surface.
The distance between the plants should be at least 2 m.To use the culture as decoration, the walls are planted in a trench at a distance of 0.5 m.
Actinidia is very fond of cats. A young seedling should be protected with a net, blocking the animal's access to it.