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What Is Camu Camu – Information On Camu Camu Benefits And More

What Is Camu Camu – Information On Camu Camu Benefits And More



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By: Becca Badgett, Co-author of How to Grow an EMERGENCY Garden

You might be curious to learn exactly what is camu camu, or perhaps it’s been suggested for some of your ailments. While you’re here, read on to get both questions answered and to learn the details of using Myrciaria dubia, also called camu camu.

About Camu Camu Berries

Myrciaria dubia information says this fruit is one of the new superfoods we hear of these days. Fruit, seeds and leaves of camu camu are used in concoctions after it is turned into supplement form. The fruit grows on large shrubs or small trees near the Amazon river in Peru and are relatives of rumberry trees. Camu camu fruit grows in the form of berries and has substantially more natural Vitamin C than a lemon. Usually, by the time it gets to you it will be in supplement form.

Camu camu berries are not regularly imported to the U.S., and their taste does not encourage regular consumption. However, the fruit is prized in Japan, and Peruvian officials expect the U.S. to soon be a large consumer of the berries. The large berries have purple skin and yellow flesh, and are sour in natural form. Supplements use their juice in fermented beverages and pre-packaged smoothies, often to treat various chronic and degenerative diseases.

Camu Camu Benefits

Once the fruit is converted to supplement form, it can be used to treat inflammatory conditions and contains various antioxidant compounds. Chronic systemic inflammation, left untreated, can lead to chronic pain and accompanying conditions. Those diseases that primarily exhibit symptoms of inflammation, as well as those that cause inflammation may be kept under control with the use of these supplements, according to Myrciaria dubia information.

Camu camu benefit information says it is potentially anti-carcinogenic. This could mean the prevention of atherosclerosis and other diseases of that type. Other camu camu benefits include treatment of glaucoma and cataracts, as well as asthma, headaches and gum disease. The supplement makers also claim increased energy.

While camu camu certainly has an impressive list of benefits, some doctors say not enough research is available to prove those claims. If it’s recommended to you for a condition or ailment, consider the source from which the recommendation is received. Many professionals advise using tried and true supplements like blueberry and pomegranate products.

This article was last updated on


Camu Camu

Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) is an Amazonian fruit considered as one of the most powerful sources of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and the world is beginning to discover its enormous medicinal and culinary potential.

By HerbaZest Editorial Team | Updated: Jun 18, 2020

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  • Common name(s) Camu camu, cacari, camo camo
  • Scientific name Myrciaria dubia
  • Geographic distribution Amazon Rainforest
  • Plant type Tree
  • Native region Amazon Rainforest
  • Main producer(s) Brazil, Peru
  • Main Economic Use Culinary, Beverage industry

First used by the indigenous peoples of the Amazonian region, camu camu was a source of food and herbal medicine for hundreds of years prior to its wider appreciation. Since camu camu's medicinal and nutritional potential was first investigated by the Peruvian government in the 1950s, the popularity of the tropical berry has been steadily growing, mainly due to its high vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content.


Wild Camu-Camu of Peru

Managing the Wild: Stories of People and Plants and Tropical Forests (Yale University Press), by Charles M. Peters, invites readers to follow him through his travels of tropical forests. Take a closer look at the growth and propagation that occurs in the tropical forests. Meet some of the community that maintain the forests. The following excerpt is from Chapter 3, Camu-Camu: Fruits, Floods, and Vitamin C.

Sahua cocha and IIAP field station at Jenaro Herrera (S 4 degrees 54’21”, W 73 degrees 40’07”), fourteen hours up the Ucayali River from Iquitos, Peru, 1984–1987, 2011

I was on the lookout for interesting fruits from the moment I arrived at Iquitos, and the first one that caught my eye was a small red-and-green marble to golf ball–sized fruit called camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). I saw it everywhere. Street vendors pushed carts loaded with baskets of camu-camu around town, women in the central market piled up plastic bags filled with the fruit for sale, delicious camu-camu juice drinks were available all over the place, and camu-camu sherbet was one of the first flavors listed on the signs outside the local ice-cream parlors. This was clearly one of the most popular native fruits in town. My first question was, I wonder where all these fruits come from?

I went around town and asked the street vendors, juice makers, market women, and ice-cream scoopers where they got their camu-camu fruit. What I really wanted to know was whether it was cultivated locally or “wild harvested” from the forest I was hoping the latter. My informants all told me that they bought the fruit from sellers at the port, and that it came from someplace “upriver.” I started hanging around the port, and soon saw several chaucheros (dockworkers) climbing up the slippery bank from the river with huge bamboo baskets on their backs filled with camu-camu fruit. Once they had reached the top and put down their baskets, I began interviewing them. All the chaucheros told me the same thing: “The best camu-camu comes from the oxbow lakes outside Jenaro Herrera, about fourteen hours from Iquitos up the Ucayali River.”

I had come to Peru to participate in a three-year study of the ecology and management of native fruit trees. As luck would have it, the local research institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana) with which I was collaborating had a small field station outside Jenaro Herrera. And it did take fourteen hours-and an overnight ride on a riverboat packed with swinging ham-mocks, motorcycles, innumerable sacks filled with rice, tubers, and electronic equipment, lots of children and babies, and a few water buffaloes — to get there. The station was located five kilometers from the town of Jenaro Herrera up a dirt road. About a dozen of us, mostly students and a few researchers, lived at the station, and I had a comfortable, palm — thatched hut with bathroom, running water, and even electricity for two or three hours most evenings. I also had the use of a wooden longboat named Myrciaria that had been made by a local boat builder and an incredibly knowledge-able and pleasant field assistant named Umberto Pacaya, who was a skilled boat driver, knew where to find all of the native fruits, and never once got lost in the forest. It was a great place to work.

On my first field excursion, I went to explore the two big oxbow lakes, Supay cocha and Sahau cocha, outside Jenaro Herrera, where the camu-camu was growing. The bank of each of the lakes had a 20–30-meter-wide strip packed with camu-camu shrubs. When the water level in the lake was up, it was hard to paddle through the canopy of the camu-camal (dense aggregations of camu-camu) when the water level was down, we had to crawl, climb, and pick our way through the tangle of stems with care. As soon as the water level in the lake had dropped enough to uncover the entire camu-camu population, we started laying out our inventory plots.

The plots were laid along a straight line with the edge of the lake on one side and the levee — where flooded forest was growing — on the other. We had to work fast because the water level in the lake was rising a little each day and the front of our plots was becoming submerged. We were able to finish ten plots before they were all flooded. We measured and tagged almost nine hundred camu-camu plants in the plots over half of these were seedlings and saplings. To put this number in perspective, most tropical forest trees form natural populations with only a couple of reproductive adults per hectare the camu-camu population I had put my plots in had an estimated thirty-eight hundred fruit-producing plants per hectare.

The camu-camu plants started flowering while we were still working on our plots. The species produces beautiful white blossoms with a pleasing fragrance and sweet nectar to attract bees for pollination, and bees constantly buzzed around us as we worked. As the water continued to rise, the trees started to form small fruits, and by the time the water level had reached a couple of meters, the crowns of the trees were completely covered with shiny red fruit. These either fell into the water, where they were subsequently eaten and dispersed by fish, or were collected by local villagers.6 Within a week or so, all the trees were completely underwater.

Although camu-camu is a terrestrial plant, it spends six to seven months each year in this state. Its life cycle is tied to the rise and fall of the oxbow lake, and in the few months it is out of the water, seeds have to germinate, saplings have to grow, and adult trees have to produce flowers these have to be pollinated, and a large quantity of fruit must then be nourished to maturity — all before the waters rise again. The full sun and rich alluvial soils undoubtedly help the species fulfill these biological necessities in such a short period of time. Few other woody species can tolerate the severe annual flooding, so the camu-camu essentially has these fertile sites all to itself — another major advantage.

One of the important goals of my research was to estimate how much fruit the camu-camu populations were producing. This turned out to be somewhat complicated. When measuring the production of fruit by a plant population, the researcher usually tries to quantify the size-specific production: the number of fruits produced by plants of differing size. With this result, the researcher will multiply the fruit-production values for each size class by the number of plants recorded in that class to estimate total fruit production by the population. It is thus important not to mix the fruiting branches from big trees with those from smaller individuals. When water levels are low and the trees are completely uncovered, it is easy to see which fruiting branches belong to each individual. But when the water level rises, and it becomes harder to see which trunk a given branch is connected to, researchers can often make mistakes. To overcome this difficulty, we decided to number and label the branches pertaining to each sample tree with flags, and then move all the flags up as the water level rose. In this way, even when we could not see the main trunk of the tree, we could distinguish and separate out all of its fruiting branches.

Umberto Pacaya and I flagged the fruiting branches on twenty-five camu-camu trees of differing sizes and untied and retied hundreds of branch flags as the water level in the lake rose. We continued doing this for two years the results were impressive.The natural populations of camu-camu growing at the lake produced between 1.2 million and 1.6 million fruits per hectare each year. Based on an average fruit weight of about eight grams, this represents an annual production of from 9.5 to 12.7 metric tons of fruit per hectare. The majority of these fruits were produced by individuals in the smaller size classes, those with basal diameters of two to four centimeters. These individuals were also the shortest trees in the population, and as a result they were out of the water for only three or four months each year.

The fruit of camu-camu is extremely acidic. I ate so many fruits as I bobbed around in a boat in the middle of an oxbow lake in Peruvian Amazonia, that my lips were covered with blisters. Curious about where the acidity came from, I collected some fruit and sent it to a laboratory in Lima for nutritional analysis. The results made it clear that the acidity was caused by the high concentration of ascorbic acid, vitamin C. The fruit contains 2,000 – 3,000 milligrams of ascorbic acid per 100 grams of pulp eating three fruits is roughly equivalent to taking a 500-milligram tablet of vitamin C. Oranges, by contrast, which are touted for their high vitamin C content, contain only 30 milligrams of ascorbic acid per 100 grams of pulp — about a hundredth of that found in camu-camu.

The wild stands of camu-camu growing along the oxbow lakes in Peru are some of the highest-density aggregations of a single plant species found in the tropics. These stands are extremely productive, largely because they are naturally “fertilized” each year by the floodwaters of the Ucayali River. They produce a fruit that is not only tasty but also extremely rich in vitamin C, and local communities actively exploit them for the revenues that the sale of the fruit provides. Collectors shipped over 45 metric tons of camu-camu fruit from Jenaro Herrera to Iquitos in 1984, for example. These populations, in essence, are huge, organic factories of vitamin C. They cost nothing to maintain. And they will continue to produce for as long as the ecological requirements of the species and the habitat are maintained, the river continues to rise and fall in a somewhat predictable manner, and the villagers are careful to harvest a sustainable amount each year, leaving a percentage of the seeds on the site to facilitate the regeneration of the population.

Local collectors have been harvesting camu-camu fruit for commercial use from the oxbow lakes outside Jenaro Herrera for several decades. The species would seem to be more resistant to the effects of harvesting because of its high-density populations and abundant fruit production, but until recently nothing was known about the impact of fruit collection on the structure and function of wild camu-camu stands. Market demand for the fruit was still strong in Iquitos, and villagers continued to paddle out to the lake and fill their canoes with camu-camu fruit each year. What effect was this having on the plants?

To address this question, a graduate student of mine, Meredith Martin, traveled to Jenaro Herrera in 2011 to resample my plots at the oxbow lake, twenty-seven years after the plots were originally surveyed. The camu-camu population had been harvested for fruit every year since then, at increasing intensities and by more people as the market expanded. Martin found my field assistant, Umberto Pacaya, now a bit older, but still thrilled at the prospect of fieldwork and per diems, and he remembered exactly where the plots were. Together they laid out a new set of plots, as close as possible to the original location, and recounted and re-measured the camu-camu plants. What they found was that the density of camu-camu individuals on the site had decreased by about 75 percent. While it might seem obvious that excessive harvesting was the cause of the decrease, another riparian shrub, Eugenia inundata, known locally as fanache, found in both the original plots and the second inventory, also exhibited a significant decrease in stem density — and this species had not been harvested.

Something other than commercial fruit collection seemed to be affecting the regeneration of both shrub species. A look at the dynamics of the Ucayali River over the past two decades suggests a plausible explanation. Since the late 1980s, the frequency of extreme hydrological events in the Amazon Basin has increased significantly. Severe droughts and high flooding have been recorded several times, and the flood of 2009 was ranked as one of the highest and longest of the past 107 years. Although riparian shrubs are well adapted to the unpredictability of life along the floodplain, they need sufficient time out of the water to flower, fruit, and establish new seedlings. Commercial harvesting decreases the number of seeds available for germination and establishment too much time underwater has an impact on both the reproduction and the growth dynamics of the population.

The changes noted in the density of the camu-camu population might also be linked to the inevitable successional development of the oxbow lake. The lakes at Jenaro Herrera remain connected to the Ucayali River through a tie channel, or caño. These channels transfer water and sediments during the flood cycle and act as the dominant mechanism of lake infilling. The lake is gradually filling up with sediment, the surrounding levees are slowly shifting inward, and tree species from the nearby flooded forest are moving in to colonize the camu-camu site.

There is no question that commercial fruit collection has had an impact on the regeneration and population structure of camu-camu. Other factors, however, are also at work. The oxbow lake is filling up, new species are moving in, and it is only a matter of time before the lake — and the camu-camu that grew there — will be gone. The extreme flooding that has occurred in recent years will undoubtedly lead to the formation of new oxbow lakes with new riparian habitats to colonize. If they have a source of seeds and the fish to disperse them, camu-camu will start a new population. The fruit, the collectors, the oxbow lake, and the river are all part of a particular context in the floodplain of Peruvian Amazonia. The work with camu-camu at Jenaro Herrera is a useful reminder that contexts change.


1. Improves liver health

According to studies, camu camu contains a compound called 1-methyl maleate, which helps in improving one's liver health. The compound is also beneficial in treating injuries related to the liver [4] .

2. Enhances cognitive ability

Possessing powerful antioxidant abilities, the vitamin C content in the fruit is extremely beneficial in improving our cognitive ability. The flavonoid antioxidants, including anthocyanins and ellagic acid aids in removing the plaque build-up in the cognitive pathways - caused by free radicals and oxidative stress, and help prevent the onset of cognitive disorders [5] .

3. Aids weight loss

Studies have pointed out that camu camu can be an effective remedy for weight loss. The fruit's ability to help you maintain healthy gut bacteria, which improves your metabolism and hence, help shed that extra weight [6] . Apart from this, the fruit also helps limit the onset of chronic diseases that are linked to obesity.

4. Manages mood swings

Camu camu possess sedative properties which makes it useful in being used as a relaxing agent. Although studies are being conducted on understanding the reason behind it, the fruit is beneficial for reducing mental anxiety and mood swings [7] . Some studies suggest that it could be due to the presence of magnesium and other vitamins that help in calming your body [8] .

5. Tones muscles

The plethora of nutrient, vitamins and amino acids present in the fruit helps in the growth and protection of muscles. Regular and controlled consumption of the fruit powder can help in increasing your muscle tone, making it ideal for your workout sessions [9] .

6. Improves eyesight

Rich in carotenoids, consuming camu camu is beneficial for your vision. Known for its ability to protect eye health as an antioxidant, it aids in eliminating the oxidative stress in the ocular system and limits the onset of macular degeneration [10] . It also helps prevent the development of cataract.

7. Supports digestion

The dietary fibre present in camu camu helps in boosting your digestive processes, which in turn improves your overall health [11] .

8. Improves heart health

The fruit is also beneficial for your heart health as its impressive role in the digestion process aids in eliminating unbalanced cholesterol levels [11] .

Apart from these health benefits, camu camu is also said to possess the ability to prevent infertility, manage diabetes, improve blood sugar levels and promote healthier blood pressure.


Camu-Camu

Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Myrciaria
Species: dubia
Synonyms: Eugenia divaricata, E. grandiglandulosa, Marliera macedoi, Myrciaria caurenisis, M. divarticata, M. lanceolata, M. obscura, M. paraensis, M. phillyraeoides, M. riedeliana, M. spruceana, Psidium dubium
Common Names: Camu-camu, camu, camu berry, rumberry

The below has been printed from the book Camu Camu: Nature's Secret for Disease Prevention © copyrighted 2020 by Leslie Taylor.

Introduction

Camu camu is a superfruit from the Amazon rainforest that is the richest source of vitamin C on the planet. However, as this book will explain, camu camu is so much more than just this one vital vitamin. Camu camu not only provides a full complement of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and a therapeutic amount of potassium but also contains an exorbitant amount of natural plant compounds called polyphenols that naturally occur in many fruits and vegetables.

The natural health industry has been promoting various superfruits, fruit extract supplements, and fruit powders for many years for the many health benefits they provide—the majority of which come from their polyphenol content. North American and temperate-climate fruits that fall into the superfruit category include cranberries, goji berries, blueberries, grapes, pomegranates, mulberries, raspberries, strawberries, and blackberries. These fruits are all showing up in functional foods and beverages. However, there’s a widely popular and growing market for tropical superfruit products. Tropical fruits such as camu camu, acai, noni, maqui, acerola, graviola, cherimoya, cupuacu, passion fruit, guava, lucuma, and others contain many more polyphenols than temperate-climate fruits, and wild-harvested tropical fruits have the highest level of all.

One of the many benefits polyphenols deliver is to provide strong antioxidant actions, which offer a wide array of health and disease-prevention benefits. The important information revealed in this book is that camu camu provides higher vitamin C (which has strong antioxidant actions) and more antioxidant polyphenols than any other known fruit in North or South America. New research also indicates that camu camu provides better antioxidant actions than all other fruits as well. No other fruit compares to the combination of very high vitamin C with very high polyphenol levels that camu camu delivers.

Health experts (and product marketers) tout superfruits as nutrient-packed foods that can do everything from increase your energy, help you lose weight, and reduce aging to protect you from cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and other life-threatening illnesses. This book will help you, the consumer, separate the scientific facts from the marketing hype in the marketplace, learn which of these health claims are possible or probable, and how specifically polyphenols work to achieve these benefits. This book will also help you understand the actual studies conducted on camu camu and fruit polyphenols in general.

The goal of this book is to finally explain that while our immune system protects us from infectious diseases and injuries, the main system in our bodies that protects us from chronic disease is our natural built-in antioxidant system, which is supposed to keep free radicals at healthy levels. You’ll also learn:


  • What causes this system to falter or fail.
  • How our diets play a role in the health of our antioxidant system.
  • What leading causes increase free radicals in our bodies and strain the system.
  • What kind of cellular damage and deregulations are caused when this system falters or fails.
  • What diseases and conditions we are at greater risk of developing when we have a faltering or failing antioxidant system.
  • How to heal and repair this system and restore its ability to protect us from chronic disease.

Over the last year, I have been studying more than 1,000 polyphenol plant compounds and reading a huge number of clinical studies and published research on them. The amount of research on these important compounds is increasing daily with more than 10,000 studies on polyphenols published in just the last five years. New research on the actions and mechanisms of polyphenols, their effective dosages, and which plants and fruits contain enough to be therapeutic hold important information for the health and wellness of the planet. The recent growth in the knowledge of free radicals and plant-based polyphenols is producing a medical revolution that promises a new age of health and disease management in the research world. New drugs are on the horizon for the treatment of chronic diseases based on this research. However, polyphenols have surfaced in this new research as effective therapies for both new treatments and the prevention of many chronic diseases, and these are available to us now.

We used to get plenty of naturally occurring plant polyphenols in the fresh fruits and vegetables in our diet, but sadly, for far too many of us, that has become part of our past. Recent research reports that the main polyphenols in the average American diet now comes from coffee, chocolate, and wine. Fruit polyphenols are in fourth place, and vegetable-derived polyphenols comes in dead last.

After reviewing all the new research on polyphenols and camu camu and studying the specific polyphenols and the amounts provided in the fruit, I believe that camu camu’s highest and best use to positively affect our health is by preventing these chronic diseases. If you choose to try camu camu for these purposes, this book provides vital information in a comprehensive consumer guide about the camu camu products available in the marketplace, how to choose the best product, and what dosages are most beneficial. Not all camu camu products are the equal (and some contain up to 87 percent less polyphenols!), and this book will tell you why and how to make informed choices when purchasing a camu camu (or any superfruit) supplement. You may not be able to find this in-depth information elsewhere, especially from an unbiased and reliable source that isn’t trying to sell you their product.

I hope this book helps you find understanding and solutions to avoid many of the preventable diseases discussed in this book. Simple and natural health solutions such as these shouldn’t be kept a secret but should be widely shared to lower our healthcare costs while benefiting our overall health and quality of life.

The below text has been pre-printed from: The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs, 2nd edition © 2019 by Leslie Taylor

CAMU-CAMU
Herbal Properties and Actions

MAIN ACTIONS

OTHER ACTIONS

STANDARD DOSAGE
is nutritious dries secretions Fruit
fights free radicals prevents mutations Fresh Juice: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
reduces inflammation balances cholesterol Tablets: 1-2 g twice daily or
protects cells lowers blood sugar follow label directions based on
promotes weight loss lowers blood pressure Vitamin C content
kills bacteria increase sperm count

Description

Camu-camu is a low-growing shrub found throughout the Amazon rainforest, mainly in swampy or flooded areas. It grows to a height of about 2-3 m and has large, feathery leaves. It produces round, light orange-colored fruits about the size of lemons, which contain a significant amount of vitamin C. Its high vitamin C content has created a demand for camu-camu fruit in the natural products market. Some groups are now beginning to study cultivation methods for this important new rainforest resource, which is still harvested wild throughout the Amazon region. Ethnobotanist Mark Plotkin notes in his book, Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice, that "a forest stand of camu-camu is worth twice the amount to be gained from cutting down the forest and replacing it with cattle," and he believes that camu-camu cultivation holds real economic promise for local economies. Usually, camu-camu fruit is wild-harvested in the rainforest in canoes because the fruits mature at high water or flooding seasons in the Amazon.

Tribal and Herbal Medicine Uses

Camu-camu was never documented as a traditional herbal remedy for any condition in the Amazon region before a market was created for it in the U.S. and Japan. In fact, it wasn’t even widely eaten as a fruit by the indigenous people, due to its sour, acidic taste. Today, many camu-camu products and sweetened juices, and even ice creams can be found in the larger cities and towns in the Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon regions promoting the same health benefits as are now being promoted here.

Plant Chemicals

Camu-camu fruit has the highest recorded amount of natural vitamin C known on the planet. Oranges provide 500–4,000 ppm vitamin C, or ascorbic acid acerola has tested in the range of 16,000 to 172,000 ppm. Camu-camu provides up to 500,000 ppm, or about 2 grams of vitamin C per 100 grams of fruit. In comparison to oranges, camu-camu provides 30 times more vitamin C, 10 times more iron, 3 times more niacin, twice as much riboflavin, and 50% more phosphorus. Camu-camu is also a significant source of potassium, providing 711 mg per kg of fruit. It also contains beta-carotene (vitamin A), calcium, thiamin (vitamin B1) has a full complement of minerals and amino acids (including zinc, magnesium, manganese, and copper) that can aid in the absorption of vitamin C.

As with any vitamin C-rich fruit, however, the time between harvesting and consumption is crucial the fruit may lose up to a quarter of its vitamin C content in less than a month (even if frozen). Even with this loss, camu-camu still has a dramatic edge over its next challenger, acerola, for vitamin C content.

While vitamin C is known to be a pretty good antioxidant (a substance that can scavenge free radicals and prevent healthy cells from mutating into unhealthy ones) camu-camu fruits are a major source of bioactive compounds called polyphenols. These include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, stilbenes, and lignans which are generated in plants as a part their own unique and complicated chemical defense mechanism to reduce oxidative stress in their leaves, fruits, roots and bark from fungi and bacteria, soil viruses, intense heat and light and to recover from insect predation. These bioactive plant chemicals and can possess 4-5 times the antioxidant power as vitamin C and E. Thus far, camu-camu has been reported to contain 11 of these strong plant antioxidants. Camu-camu fruit, in comparison to many other tropical fruits tested, has demonstrated the highest vitamin C, the highest total phenolics content, and the highest antioxidant activity. Much of the new research on this healthy fruit is directly related to these powerful antioxidant phenol chemicals.

In addition to the vitamins and minerals mentioned above, camu-camu contains anthocyanidins, alpha-pinene, calcium, citrate, cyanidin 3-glucoside, d-limonene, delphinidin 3-glucoside, ellagic acid, leucine, malate, 1-methyl malate, 1,4-dimethyl malate, myricetin, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, serine, tartrate, and valine.

Biological Activities and Clinical Research

When this book was first published in 2006 there had been no research conducted or published on any medicinal or therapeutic properties of camu-camu. Complete phytochemical analysis of what plant chemicals occurred in the fruit hadn’t been performed yet either discovering these polyphenol antioxidants. Things have certainly changed! Much of the new research has been concerning camu-camu’s antioxidant actions. The first study on camu-camu’s phenolic antioxidants was published in 2005 when two anthocyanin chemicals were discovered. Between 2007 and 2013 four more studies were published reporting new antioxidant chemicals in the fruit and measuring their actions. In 2008 a research group performed a human study on camu-camu’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Twenty habitual male smokers who were considered to have an accelerated oxidative stress state were randomly assigned to take daily 1050 mg of vitamin C tablets or 70 mL of 100% camu camu juice containing 1050 mg of vitamin C as a dietary supplement. At the end of seven days, the group taking the camu-camu were tested and reported to have significantly less oxidative stress markers, significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels, and the levels of inflammatory markers were also significantly lower. These results were not evidenced in the group only taking vitamin C and the researchers concluded that the antioxidant actions of the fruit were due to the other antioxidant chemicals and not vitamin C.

Current Practical Uses

In the North American nutritional market, suggested daily servings are based upon the vitamin C content in the product sold, which can vary. Adjust the serving size or dosage based upon the amount of vitamin C the product contains.

Main Actions (in order): antioxidant, nutritive, anti-aging, cancer-preventative, antiobesity

Main Uses:

  1. as an antioxidant to prevent chronic diseases
  2. for its natural high vitamin C content
  3. for colds/flu
  4. for healthy aging
  5. as an adjunctive for diabetes and high blood pressure
Properties/Actions Documented by Research: anti-aging, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anti-obesity, antioxidant, cellular protector, fertility enhancer, hypolipidemic (lowers cholesterol), hypotensive, immunostimulant, nutritive, wound healer

Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: nutritive

Contraindications: None reported. Side effects for high or excessive dosages of vitamin C include gastrointestinal disturbances and diarrhea.

Drug Interactions: None reported.

Published Research on Camu-Camu

All available third-party research on camu-camu and its active compounds can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on camu-camu and some of its active compounds updated through 3/15/2020 is shown below:

Anti-Aging Actions:
Azevedo, J., et al. "Neuroprotective effects of dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) residue in C. elegans." Food Res. Intl. 2015 Jul 73: 135-141.
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Muthenna, P., et al. "Ellagic acid, a new antiglycating agent: its inhibition of N?-(carboxymethyl)lysine." Biochem. J. 2012 Feb 442(1): 221-30.
Raghu, G., et al. "Attenuation of diabetic retinopathy in rats by ellagic acid through inhibition of AGE formation." J. Food Sci. Technol. 2017 Jul 54(8): 2411-2421.
Rahimi, V., et al. "Ellagic acid dose and time-dependently abrogates d-galactose-induced animal model of aging: Investigating the role of PPAR-y." Life Sci. 2019 Sep 232: 116595.
Rahimi, V., et al. "Ellagic acid reveals promising anti-aging effects against d-galactose-induced aging on human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y: A mechanistic study." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2018 Dec 108: 1712-1724.
Rios, J., et al. "A pharmacological update of ellagic acid." Planta Med. 2018 Oct 84(15): 1068-1093.
Suantawee, T., et al. "Protective effect of cyanidin against glucose- and methylglyoxal-induced protein glycation and oxidative DNA damage." Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016 Dec 93(Pt A): 814-821.
Thilavech, T., et al. "Cyanidin-3-rutinoside attenuates methylglyoxal-induced protein glycation and DNA damage via carbonyl trapping ability and scavenging reactive oxygen species." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016 May 23 16: 138.

Anti-Inflammatory Actions:
Allam, G., et al. "Ellagic acid alleviates adjuvant induced arthritis by modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines." Cent. Eur. J. Immunol. 2016 41(4): 339-349.
Chen, P., et al. "Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of ellagic acid in liver and brain of rats treated by D-galactose." Sci. Rep. 2018 Jan 23 8(1): 1465.
Derosa, G., et al. "Ellagic acid and its role in chronic diseases." Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2016 928: 473-479.
Fikry, E., et al. "Caffeic acid and ellagic acid ameliorate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats via targeting inflammatory signals, chitinase-3-like protein-1 and angiogenesis." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2019 Feb 110: 878-886.
Gupta, S., et al. "Inflammation, a double-edge sword for cancer and other age-related diseases." Front. Immunol. 2018 Sep 9: 2160.
Huimin, D., et al. "Protective effect of betulinic acid on Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats." J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2019 Sep 33(9): e22373.
Inoue, T., et al. "Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties." J. Cardiol. 2008 Oct 52(2): 127-32.
Langley, P., et al. "Antioxidant and associated capacities of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia): a systematic review." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2015 Jan 21(1): 8-14.
Lin, Z., et al. "The protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) in osteoarthritis: An in vitro and in vivo study." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020 Feb 11 125: 109845.
Murphy, M., et al. "The polyphenol ellagic acid exerts anti-inflammatory actions via disruption of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway activators and coupling mediators." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2020 Feb 23: 173036.
Ou, Z., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effect and potential mechanism of betulinic acid on ?-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2019 Oct 118: 109347.
Rios, J., and Manez, S. "New pharmacological opportunities for betulinic acid." Planta Med. 2018 Jan 84(1): 8--19.
Rios, J., et al. "A pharmacological update of ellagic acid." Planta Med. 2018 Oct 84(15): 1068-1093.
Serrano, A., et al. "Bioactive compounds and extracts from traditional herbs and their potential anti-inflammatory health effects." Medicines. 2018 Jul 5(3): E76.
Wang, X., et al. "Protective effects of betulinic acid on intestinal mucosal injury induced by cyclophosphamide in mice." Pharmacol. Rep. 2019 Oct 71(5): 929-939.
Yazawa, K., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2011 57(1): 104-7.

Antimicrobial Actions:
Alimirzaee, P., et al. "1-methyl malate from Berberis integerrima fruits enhances the antibacterial activity of ampicillin against Staphylococcus aureus." Phytother Res. 2009 Jun 23(6): 797-800.
Camere-Colarossi, R., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (Camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis." Asian Pacif. J. Tropical Biomed. 2016 6(9): 740-744.
Castillo-Carranza, C., "In vitro inhibitory effect of Myrciaria dubia "camu-camu" on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans." Thesis 2013. National University of Trujillo. Trujillo, Peru. Published in Tesis de Medicina
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Kaneshima T, et al. "Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2017 Aug 81(8): 1461-1465.
Lopez-Mata, A. "Antibacterial effect of the juice of Myrciaria dubia, Citrus grande and Citrus reticula on Escherichia coli and Salmonella tiphy." CIENTIFI-K. 2017 5(1): 87-92.
Mirzale, S., et al. "Investigation for antimicrobial resistance-modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies." J. Biomol. Struct Dyn. 2015 33(5): 1016-26.
Mori, T., et al. "Antimicrobial effect of Myrciaria dubia (camu camu) and Cyperus luzulae (piri piri) on pathogenic microorganisms." 2016 Conoc. Amaz. 4: 49-57.
Moromi, H., "Effectiveness in vitro and in vivo of a Myrciaria dubia based mouthwash on important oral bacteria." Theorema. 2014 Jun 1(1): 83-92.
Myoda, T., et al. "Antioxidative and antimicrobial potential of residues of camu-camu juice production." J. Food. Agricult. Environ. 2010 8: 304-307.
Pardo-Aldalve, K., et al. "Myrciaria dubia: its potential as adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease." Revista Cubana. 2019 56(4): e1779.
Pardo-Aldave, K., "Antimicrobial activity in vitro of Camu-Camu (Myrciaria dubia) against oral microorganisms: a systematic review." Rev. Peru Med. Exp. Salud Publica. 2019 Oct-Dec 36(4): 573-582.
Roumy, V., et al. "Plant therapy in the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto) in case of infectious diseases and its antimicrobial evaluation." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2020 Mar 249: 112411.
Saldarriaga-Mostacero, E. "In vitro antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract of Myrciaria dubia (camu camu) on Streptococcus mutans." Thesis 2017. National University of Trujillo, School of Dentistry. Trujillo, Peru.
Varela-Lopez, A., et al. "Non-nutrient, natural, occurring phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases." Antioxidants. 2015 4(3): 447-81.

Anti-Obesity and Antidiabetic Actions:
Ahangarpour, A., et al. "The antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of some phenolic phytochemicals: A review study." Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 2019 Jan - Feb 13(1): 854-857.
Amin, M., et al. "Estimation of ellagic acid and/or repaglinide effects on insulin signaling, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators of liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and brain in insulin resistant/type 2 diabetic rats." Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2017 Feb 42(2): 181-192.
Anhe. F., et al. "Treatment with camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) prevents obesity by altering the gut microbiota and increasing energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice." Gut. 2018 Jul: 68: 453-464.
Balisteiro, D., et al. "Effect of clarified Brazilian native fruit juices on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects." Food Res. Int. 2017 100: 196-203.
Donado-Pestana, C., et al. "Polyphenols from Brazilian native Myrtaceae fruits and their potential health benefits against obesity and its associated complications." Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2018 19: 42-49.
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Goncalves, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antioxidant/ antidiabetic potential of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010 58: 4666-4674.
Goncalves, A., et al. "Frozen pulp extracts of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh) attenuate the hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation of type 1 diabetic rats. Food Res. Int. 2014 Oct 64: 1-8.
Kim, K., et al. "Betulinic acid inhibits high-fat diet-induced obesity and improves energy balance by activating AMPK." Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2019 Apr 29(4): 409-420.
Nascimento, O., et al. "Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2013 Mar 85(1): 355-63.
Wang, L., et al. "Ellagic acid promotes browning of white adipose tissues in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats through suppressing white adipocyte maintaining genes." Endocr. J. 2019 Oct 66(10): 923-936.
Vargas, B., et al. "Effect of camu-camu capsules on blood glucose and lipid profile of healthy adults." Rev. Cubana Plantas Med. 2015 20: 48-61.
Wang, S., et al. "Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity." J. Nutr. Biochem. 2014 Jan 25(1): 1-18.

Antioxidant Actions:
Akter, M., et al. "Nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit: a review." Food Res. Int. 2011 44: 1728-1732.
Avila-Sosa, R., et al. "Antioxidant properties of Amazonian fruits: a mini review of in vivo and in vitro studies." Oxidat. Med. Cell. Longev. 2019 2019: 8204129.
Arellano-Acuna, E., et al. "Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia): Tropical fruit of excellent functional properties that help to improve the quality of life." Sci. Agropecuaria. 2016 7(4): 433-443.
Azevedo, L., et al. "Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) from commercial cultivation has higher levels of bioactive compounds than native cultivation (Amazon Forest) and presents antimutagenic effects in vivo." J. Sci. Food Agric. 2019 Jan 99(2): 624-631.
Chirinos, R., "Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciara dubia [H.B.K.] McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages." Food Chem. 2010 120: 1019-1024.
da Silva, F., et al. "Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2012 Jul 50(7): 2275-81.
de Carvalho-Silva L., et al. "Antiproliferative, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of a Brazilian tropical fruit juice." Food Sci. Technol. 2014 59: 1319-1324.
Fidelis, M., et al. "In vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive compounds from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae) seed coat: A multivariate structure-activity study." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2018 Oct 120: 479-490.
Fracassetti, D., et al. "Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia)." Food Chem. 2013 Aug 139(1-4): 578-88.
Franco, M., et al. "Volatile composition of some Brazilian fruits: umbu-caja (Spondias citherea), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), Araca-boi (Eugenia stipitata), and Cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum)." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000 48(4): 1263-5.
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Genovese, M., et al. "Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of exotic fruits and commercial frozen pulps from Brazil." Food Sci. Technol. Int. 2008 14: 207-214.
Goncalves, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antioxidant/antidiabetic potential of Brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010 58: 4666-4674.
Inoue, T., et al. "Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties." J. Cardiol. 2008 Oct 52(2): 127-32.
Ju, A., et al. "Development of teff starch films containing camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) extract as an antioxidant packaging material." Indus. Crop. Prod. 2019 Dec 141: 11137.
Kaneshima, T., et al. "Antioxidant activity of C-Glycosidic ellagitannins from the seeds and peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). Food Sci. Technol. 2016 69: 76-81.
Langley, P., et al. "Antioxidant and associated capacities of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia): a systematic review. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2015 Jan 21(1): 8-14.
Myoda, T., et al. "Antioxidative and antimicrobial potential of residues of camu-camu juice production." J. Food. Agricult. Environ. 2010 8: 304-307.
Neri-Numa, I., et al. "Small Brazilian wild fruits: Nutrients, bioactive compounds, health-promotion properties and commercial interest." Food Res. Int. 2018 Jan 103: 345-360.
Reynertson, K., et al. "Quantitative analysis of antiradical [antioxidant] phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits" Food Chem. 2008 109(4): 883-890.
Rufino, M., et al. "Free radical scavenging behavior of ten exotic tropical fruits extracts." Food Res. Int. 2011: 44: 2072-2075.
Rodrigues R, et al. "Antioxidant capacity of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh] pulp." Ernahrung. Nutr. 2006 30: 357-362.
Solis, V., et al. "Antioxidant activity from pulp, peel and seed of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K)." Rev. Soc. Quím. Peru. 2009 75: 293-299.
Villanueva-Tiburcio, J., et al. "Anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in camu-camu peel (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) McVaugh)." Food Sci. Technol. Camp. 2010 30: 151-160.
Zanatta, C. F., et al. "Determination of anthocyanins from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30 53(24): 9531-5.
Zanatta, C., et al. "Carotenoid composition from the Brazilian tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." Food Chem. 2007 4: 1526-1532.
Zeb, A., "Ellagic acid in suppressing in vivo and in vitro oxidative stresses." Mol. Cell Biochem. 2018 Nov 448(1-2): 27-41.

Cellular-Protective Antioxidant Actions:
Akachi, T., et al. "1-methylmalate from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) suppressed D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2010 74(3): 573-8.
Azevedo, J., et al. "Neuroprotective effects of dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) residue in C. elegans." Food Res. Intl. 2015 Jul 73: 135-141.
Becerra, K., et al. "Nephroprotective effect of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) in a model of nephrotoxicity induced by Gentamicin in rats." Rev. Chil. Nutr. 2019 Jun 46(3): 303-307.
Chakraborty, S., et al. "Oxidative stress mechanisms underlying Parkinson's Disease-associated neurodegeneration in C. elegans." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013 14: 23103-23128.
da Silva, F., et al. "Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of Myrciaria dubia juice in mice submitted to ethanol 28-day treatment." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A. 2019 82(17): 956-968.
Doroteo, V., et al. "Phenolic compounds and antioxidant, antielastase, anticollagenase and photoprotective in vitro activities of Myrciaria dubia (camu camu) and Caesalpinia spinosa (tara)." Rev. Soc. Quim. Peru. 2012 78(4): 254-263.
Garcia-Nino, W., et al. "Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection." Pharmacol. Res. 2015 Jul 97: 84-103.
Inocente-Camones, M., et al. "Antioxidant activity and photoprotective in vitro of lotion and gel processed with extract stabilized of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia Kunth)." Rev. Soc. Quim. Peru. 2014 80(1): 65-77.

Cancer-Preventative and Anticancer Actions:
Alvis, R. "Detection of the antimutagenic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruit of Myrciaria dubia H. B. K. Mc Vaugh "camu camu", using the in vivo micronucleus test." 2010 Thesis. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru.
Asmat-Aguirre, S. "Effect of Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) Mc Vaugh fruit on induced colorectal cancer in Rattus norvegicus var. Albinus." Thesis 2017. National University of Trujillo, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Trujillo, Peru.
Azevedo, L., et al. "Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) from commercial cultivation has higher levels of bioactive compounds than native cultivation (Amazon Forest) and presents antimutagenic effects in vivo." J. Sci. Food Agric. 2019 Jan 99(2): 624-631.
Ceci, C., et al. "Experimental evidence of the antitumor, antimetastatic and antiangiogenic activity of ellagic acid." Nutrients. 2018 Nov 14 10(11).
da Silva, F., et al. "Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of Myrciaria dubia juice in mice submitted to ethanol 28-day treatment." J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A. 2019 82(17): 956-968.
de Carvalho-Silva L., et al. "Antiproliferative, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of a Brazilian tropical fruit juice." Food Sci. Technol. 2014 59: 1319-1324.
Gheorgheosu, D., et al. "Betulinic acid as a potent and complex antitumor phytochemical: A minireview." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2014 14(7): 936-45.
Gutierrez, J. "Protective ability of Myrciaria dubia "camu-camu" against oxidative stress-induced genetic damage, evaluated in vitro, in the "Chinese hamster" ovary cell line Cricetulus griseus and in vivo Drosophila melanogaster "fruit fly." 2007 Doctoral Thesis. Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Peru.
Khuda-Bukhsh, A., et al. "Molecular approaches toward targeted cancer prevention with some food plants and their products: inflammatory and other signal pathways." Nutr. Cancer. 2014 66(2): 194-205.
Sanchez, H. "Evaluation of the antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds and antimutagenic activity of the extracts of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) and Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius)." 2010 Thesis. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Lima, Peru.
Shakeri, A., et al. "Ellagic Acid: A logical lead for drug development?" Curr. Pharm. Des. 2018 24(2): 106-122.
Zhang, H., et al. "Research progress on the anticarcinogenic actions and mechanisms of ellagic acid." Cancer Biol. Med. 2014 Jun 11(2): 92-100.

Cholesterol Lowering Actions:
Goncalves, A., et al. "Frozen pulp extracts of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh) attenuate the hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation of type 1 diabetic rats. Food Res. Int. 2014 Oct 64: 1-8.
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Miyashita T, et al. "Data on a single oral dose of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) pericarp extract on flow-mediated vasodilation and blood pressure in young adult humans." Data Brief. 2017 Dec 16: 993-999.
Nascimento, O., et al. "Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2013 Mar 85(1): 355-63.
Schwertz, M., et al. "Hypolipidemic effect of camu-camu juice in rats." Rev. Nutr. 2012 25: 35-44.
Donado-Pestana, C., et al. "Polyphenols from Brazilian native Myrtaceae fruits and their potential health benefits against obesity and its associated complications." Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2018 19: 42-49.
Edwards, R., et al. "Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects." J. Nutr. 2007 137: 2405-2411.
Goncalves, F. "Effect of camu-camu juice (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh) on serum cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels in adults." 2012 Dissertation. Post-Graduate Pharmaceutical Sciences In Food Science. Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil.
Vargas, B., et al. "Effect of camu-camu capsules on blood glucose and lipid profile of healthy adults." Rev. Cubana Plantas Med. 2015 20: 48-61.

Fertility Enhancement Actions:
Torres, L., et al. "Myrciaria dubia "camu camu" flour as a magnetoprotector in male mouse infertility." Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Feb 40(2): 91-103.
Gonzales, G., et al. "The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats." Toxicol. Mech. Methods. 2013 Oct 23(8): 559-65.
Silva, E., et al. "(In)Fertility and oxidative stress: New insights into novel redox mechanisms controlling fundamental reproductive processes." Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2020 Jan 21 2020: 4674896.

Immunostimulant Actions:
Macedo, R., and Mendoza J. "Immunostimulant activity of the fruit Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh "camu camu," in Holtzman albino white rats." Thesis 2015. Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana. Iquitos, Peru.
Yunis-Aguinaga, J., et al. "Dietary camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, enhances immunological response in Nile tilapia." Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016 Nov 58: 284-291.

Non-Toxic Effect:
da Silva, F., et al. "Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2012 50: 2275-2281.
Castro L, et al. "Evaluation of the mutagenic effect of the juice of the Myrciaria fruit H.B.K. (McVaugh) (Camu-Camu) by means of a micronucleus test on the bone marrow of mice." [Poster Abstract]. Presented at the 57th Congresso Brasileiro de Genetica, Aguas de Lindoia, Brasil, August 30-September 2, 2011

Manufacturing Methods:
Azevedo, J., et al. "Dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh) industrial residue: A bioactive-rich Amazonian powder with functional attributes." Food Res. Int. 2014 62: 934-940.
Brizzolari, A., et al. "Antioxidant capacity and heat damage of powder products from South American plants with functional properties." Ital. J. Food Sci. 2019 May 31(4): 731-748.
Castro, J., et al. "Variation of the contents of vitamin C and anthocyanins in Myrciaria dubia "camu-camu." Rev. Soc. Chem. Peru. 2013 79(4): 319-330.
Conceiaco, N., et al. "By products of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] as promising sources of bioactive high added-value food ingredients: functionalization of yogurts." Molecules. 2019 Dec 24 25(1).
Cunha-Santos, E., et al "Vitamin C in camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh]: evaluation of extraction and analytical methods." Food. Res. Int. 2019 Jan 115: 160-166.
Dib Taxi, C., et al. "Study of the microencapsulation of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice." J. Microencapsul. 2003 Jul-Aug 20(4): 443-8.
Fidelis, M., et al. "From byproduct to a functional ingredient: Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seed extract as an antioxidant agent in a yogurt model." J. Dairy Sci. 2020 Feb 103(2): 1131-1140.
Fracassetti, D., et al. "Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia). Food Chem. 2013 Aug 139(1-4): 578-88.
Fujita, A., et al. "Effects of spray-drying parameters on in vitro functional properties of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh): A typical Amazonian fruit." J. Food Sci. 2017 May 82(5): 1083-1091.
Fujita, A., et al. "Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation." Food Res. Int. 2015 77(Part 2): 194-203.
Fujita, A., wt al. "Improving anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive properties of camu-camu (Myriciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) using lactic acid bacterial fermentation." Process Biochem. 2017 59:133-140.
Justi, K., et al. "Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp." Arch. Latinoam. Nutr. 2000 Dec 50(4): 405-8.
Kaneshima, T., et al. "Antioxidative constituents in camu-camu fruit juice residue." Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2013 19(2): 223-8.
Neves, L., et al. "Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the northern Brazilian Amazon region." Food Chem. 2015 174: 188-196.
Padilha, C., "Recovery of polyphenols from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh) depulping residue by cloud point extraction." Chin. J. Chem. Eng. 2018 26: 2471-2476.
Padilha, C., et al. "Enhancing the recovery and concentration of polyphenols from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh) by aqueous two-phase flotation and scale-up process." Separation Sci.Tech. 2018 53: 1-10.
Rodrigues, L, et al. "Camu-camu bioactive compounds extraction by ecofriendly sequential processes (ultrasound assisted extraction and reverse osmosis)." Ultrason. Sonochem. 2020 Jun 64: 105017.
Wulitzer, N., et al. "Tropical fruit juice: effect of thermal treatment and storage time on sensory and functional properties." J. Food Sci. Technol. 2019 Dec 56(12): 5184-5193.
Zillo, R., et al. "Camu-camu harvested with reddish-green peel preserves its physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant compounds during cold storage." Braz. J. Food Technol. 2019 22: e2017060.

Chemical Constituents:
Grigio, M., et al. "Qualitative evaluation and biocompounds present in different parts of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit." Afr. J. Food Sci. 2017 May 11: 124-129.
Franco, M. R., et al. "Volatile composition of some Brazilian fruits: umbu-caja (Spondias citherea), camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia), Araca-boi (Eugenia stipitata), and Cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum)." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000 48(4): 1263-5.

Research on Camu-camu Seeds:
Carmo, M., et al. "Hydroalcoholic Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) seed extracts prevent chromosome damage and act as antioxidant and cytotoxic agents." Food Res. Int. 2019 Nov 125: 108551.
Conceicao, N., et al. "By-products of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] as promising sources of bioactive high added-value food ingredients: functionalization of yogurts. Molecules. 2019 Dec 24 25(1).
Fidelis, M., et al. "Camu-camu seed (Myrciaria dubia) - From side stream to an antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antihemolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive ingredient." Food Chem. 2020 Apr 310: 125909.
Fidelis, M., et al. "In vitro antioxidant and antihypertensive compounds from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, Myrtaceae) seed coat: A multivariate structure-activity study." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2018 Oct 120: 479-490.
Kaneshima, T., et al. "Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2017 Aug 81(8): 1461-1465.
Kaneshima, T., et al. "Antioxidant activity of C-Glycosidic ellagitannins from the seeds and peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." Food Sci. Technol. 2016 69: 76-81.
Yazawa, K., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia)." J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2011 57(1): 104-7.


Watch the video: Camu Camu Benefits and Properties - Herbazest