Varieties of ficus - rubber, Benjamin, tiny
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Ficuses satisfy any wishes of a florist: be it a chic indoor tree, a green ampelous plant or a bonsai. They always and everywhere look "out of place". The genus of ficuses is very huge - these are majestic trees, shrubs of large and small sizes, lianas, epiphytes, and there are also special forms - banyans and "stranglers".
A relatively small number of varieties of ficus are grown at home. The most popular among amateur flower growers invariably remains "grandmother's" ficus. This ficus is for very busy people. Ficus rubber has a lot of advantages: it grows quickly, is resistant to pests and diseases, adapts to different rooms, while not losing its decorative effect.
Personally at my place three varieties of ficus... They grow very intensively and reach considerable size rather quickly.
Despite the fact that these are fairly light-loving plants, my ficuses have also adapted to low light. They easily tolerate pruning and quickly restore the crown.
When rubbery ficus grew up to two meters, I decided to "shorten" it. I cut off the ends of the branches with leaves, since it is in the leaf axil that the bud is located, from which the young shoot is formed. Then she washed them with running water to remove the milky juice containing rubber. If this is not done, then the thickened juice will clog the vessels of the stem and the lack of moisture will stop the development of the cutting. Before the roots formed, I kept them in water at a temperature of about 22 degrees, and then planted them one by one in small pots with soil. The cuttings should not be overcooled, and the ground should be moist. After a while, new leaves appeared on the planted cuttings, which indicated that the plants had taken root excellently.
Another representative of ficuses living in my house is ficus benjamin... True, this is a plant with character! But he creates a very special cozy atmosphere around him.
I have a pot of ficus in a bright, but shaded place from the sun. I water it as needed, since with constant dampness, combined with low temperature and low illumination, the leaves of the ficus fall off. Moreover, it can be completely healthy green leaves. In the summer, once every two weeks, I feed it with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer and spray it with warm water once or twice a day. In the rest of the year, I apply fertilizers more moderately.
I use beer to peel and polish the dusty leaves of large ficuses. With a sponge, I carefully wipe each sheet on both sides, and a beautiful shine is obtained! That's all the worries. And the beauty of these imposing plants pleases not only me, but also my guests.
Ficus tiny (dwarf)
Among the ficuses of giants I have and ficus tiny... He is sometimes called creeping fig tree... This small plant is absolutely different from its large relatives. It has thin, creeping or climbing stems with many small green, heart-shaped leaves. Ficus tiny loves moist soil and no less humid air. He needs support, as he grows well in favorable conditions. Its thin branches can grow up to 50 cm in a year. The tiny ficus looks very beautiful in mixed plantings or in hanging pots. This species of ficus has variegated relatives, but they grow more slowly. One of these species is the rooting fig tree. She has denser and larger leaves, often with a variegated color.
Unlike large ficuses, the tiny ficus does not like bright lighting; it dries quickly in the sun. On hot summer days, it requires high humidity, in winter I maintain the moisture of the earth. This ficus does not require special leaf care, but needs frequent spraying. I fertilize ficuses from early spring to late autumn, with specially purchased fertilizer "For ficuses" every 2 weeks.
In many publications on floriculture and health there is information about the most beneficial effects of ficuses on the human body. Our grandmothers also believed that the ficus brings happiness to the house, takes on negativity, cleans the space of negative energy. It was also believed that the ficus, as an indicator of well-being, makes it clear that not everything is going smoothly in the family: the plant got sick - this is a sign. He is especially sensitive to women's happiness. All this, of course, is only the beliefs of our ancestors, but who knows ?! You can believe, you can not believe, but you can check.
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Indoor plants Ornamental deciduous Indoor trees Shade-tolerant Plants on F Mulberry
Types of indoor ficus. Tips for cultivating indoor ficus species
Ficus is an evergreen perennial, tree-like, bush-like or liana-like, with a variety of shapes and sizes. The roots of the plant are well developed, the leaves are dense, saturated green, sometimes with spots and a rim. Ficus is grown both as a garden and a home plant. It effectively complements the design and does not make it difficult for the owner to care for. In its natural environment, it develops large in size and becomes a real tree. Ficus is decorated as a house tree, a small bonsai is given an ampelous falling shape.
The rubbery ficus is considered the most famous and rather unpretentious plant, and therefore it is often grown at home. It is distinguished by elliptical leaves with pointed ends and a light green crown with straight grooves. Air roots may appear in a humid room.
This ficus is represented by several varieties that differ from each other in color. So, to define the "Black Prince", you need to look at the sheet: if it is black, no questions will arise. Doecheri has pink blotches and a burgundy vein separating the leaf, while Variegat has attractive green leaves with beige edging. The Robusta variety, in addition to its large size, has glossy and bright green leaves.
Features of rubber ficus
Under natural conditions, rubber ficus in height can reach about 30 m.It can also grow very wide in width, the fact is that it has aerial roots, they descend from the branches and tree trunk to the surface of the soil and grow into the ground. Thus, they supply the ficus with additional nutrients, and also give it a shape called "banyan tree". Since it has a lot of winding aerial roots, the locals nicknamed it "the snake tree". Alternate large leathery leaf plates of dark green color have an elliptical shape, which has a pointed tip at the top. Young leaf plates are wrapped in brownish-red stipules, which dry out very quickly and fly around, immediately after the leaves open. The flowers of this plant are inconspicuous and do not represent any decorative value, however, they are formed only when the bush is pollinated by certain insects, and when grown indoors, this is quite problematic. In this regard, only an adult bush can bloom, which grows in a fairly spacious winter garden. The fruits are spherical syconia, reaching up to 10 mm in diameter, outwardly they are similar to small inedible figs.
More recently, such a ficus was massively grown to obtain rubber from its milky juice. If ficus juice gets on the skin, it can cause an allergic reaction, irritation or dermatitis, since it contains alkaloids and enzymes in addition to latex. If cuts or wounds appear on the ficus due to animals or humans, then this labeled juice will help them heal very quickly. The height of indoor ficus rarely exceeds 200 centimeters. However, it is not a slow-growing plant, so, in 1 year, under favorable conditions, a bush can add from 0.4 to 0.45 m to a height.If it grows to the ceiling, then it can be cut off. In most cases, when growing ficus in indoor conditions, its trunk does not give side shoots.
Ficus Benjamin transplant
Studying the issues of growth and development of ficus at home, it becomes clear that transplantation is an important item. It should be understood when it is necessary.
The need for a transplant arises in the following situations:
- The plant was purchased from a store and is in temporary shipping soil. In this case, it is not enough for the normal development of the ficus.
- The size of the pot in which the plant grows has become insufficient for it. If roots appear from the drainage holes, this means that the capacity is already small.
- The sample must be multiplied to obtain new individuals.
- The soil is contaminated with a fungus or other pathogens of various diseases.
Ficus can grow into a fairly large plant, and it will simply be inconvenient to replant it often, as much as you would like it. But still, sometimes, you need to do it.
Let's look at the most accurate reasons for how often Benjamin's ficus should be transplanted:
- up to five years, one transplant in 4 seasons is enough
- representatives aged 5 years and older are transplanted a little more often, once every 2-3 years; during the procedure, try to replace the upper part of the soil before the next transplant.
For an effective transplant, it is important to comply with some specific rules:
- the size of the next pot should be 3 cm larger than the previous one
- it is better to pick up a leafy soil, in the case of self-preparation of the soil, or purchase a ready-made mixture. The acidity of the soil should have a neutral pH.
- drainage is required before filling the soil
- the optimal method for transplanting ficus is transshipment. With this method, the roots of the plant are not injured.
- watering after transplanting can be carried out no earlier than two days later.
Ficus care tips
Buying ficus. When buying a ficus, you need to know that it is not advisable to buy a plant in winter - temperature drops when moving will lead to leaf fall.
Look at the roots through the holes in the bottom of the pot; if blackened roots are visible, do not take.
When choosing a ficus in the store, shake it slightly, if several leaves fall off, take another copy.
After moving home, wipe the leaves or rinse it under a warm shower. Sometimes the leaves are processed to give shine, then they do not breathe and the plant is sick.
Just in case, place it separately from other plants - rarely, but there are pests.
Transplant the plant after a few weeks. If you find a plastic mesh in the roots, carefully remove it.
Lighting and location. All types of ficuses love a bright place, but not under the scorching sun. Varieties with variegated leaves need good lighting; for ficuses with green leaves, diffused light and partial shade are suitable.
It is very important to know that ficuses do not like movement. It is advisable to immediately determine the place where it will grow.
Temperature. Ficus is a heat-loving plant. The optimum temperature for keeping ficus is 20-26 C in summer and 15-20 C in winter. You can not lower the temperature below 12-15 C.
Deciduous species, for example, Ficus carica (Fig), during the winter dormancy period from October to February, are kept at a lower temperature of 8-12 C.
For all types of ficuses, warm soil is important; from hypothermia of the soil, they shed their leaves. Temperature changes also lead to loss of leaves, so ficus must be protected from cold drafts.
Watering. In summer, watering is plentiful, but between waterings you need to let the soil dry out a little. In winter, careful watering is required. Deciduous ficuses are watered very little in the cold season.
Miniature ficuses require more frequent watering. They have a weak superficial root system and absorb moisture from the top layer of the substrate, which dries quickly.
Ficuses with a thickened trunk are rarely watered, but abundantly (in the pot, drainage is necessary so that excess water is glass).
Air humidity. They are not particularly capricious in relation to humidity, but when the air is too dry, they lose leaves. It is desirable to provide increased humidity, especially for Ficus dwarf. Leaf sprays and showers are helpful. Water for spraying is taken warm, soft (hard water leaves white streaks of salt on the leaves).
Top dressing. Ficuses are fed with organic or mineral fertilizers in spring and summer every 10-14 days. In winter, the ficus is not fertilized, it is better that it does not grow at this time, since weak leaves and elongated shoots can form due to a lack of lighting. After transplantation, they also do not fertilize for a month.
The soil. The soil for ficuses should be slightly acidic or neutral. You can use ready-made ficus mixtures and compose them yourself.
For young ficuses, parts of leafy land, peat and sand are taken in equal proportions. For adult ficuses, you can use soil mixtures of: turf, leafy soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1 or turf, leafy soil, peat and sand in equal parts. It is advisable to add pieces of charcoal to protect the roots from decay.
Bottle ficuses with thick trunks grow from arid areas on rocky soils, it is advisable for them to add pebbles or brick chips to the substrate.
Transfer. Ficuses are transplanted in the spring (young plants are transplanted annually, old ones are transplanted by transshipment - after 2-3 years or as needed). If the pot is too small, then the roots begin to crawl out of the drainage holes, the water does not linger when watering.
Be sure to make a good drainage layer. expanded clay and pieces of charcoal in the soil will protect the plant from stagnant water and root rot.
Rest period. Ficus carica (Fig) sheds leaves for a dormant period in the cold season and requires lower temperatures. Bottle ficuses also lose their leaves. They need to be watered very little. Other types of ficuses often slow down their growth due to lack of light and low temperatures.
Reproduction. The easiest way is to propagate by cuttings.
Winter cuttings are cut from one-two-year-old shoots and planted in early spring, before bud break, in light sandy loam soil. Green cuttings are planted in late spring - early summer in the sand and kept until rooting in a humid environment under a glass or other glass shelter. Both those and other cuttings root easily in a warm place. Rooted cuttings are planted in pots.
It is best to cut off the stalk along the mezduus (where the stalk of the leaf is attached). The stalk is placed in warm water or dried to stop the release of milky juice. They are planted in loose moist soil for ficuses in half with sand. In order for the cutting to take root better, it is recommended to make a split or cut at the bottom of thick cuttings. Cuttings root better under plastic, but make sure that no water drops fall on the leaves.
Cuttings of Benjamin ficus, rubber ficus and tiny ficus root well in water.
Pests. When the air is too dry, pests settle on ficuses: scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites, thrips.
Varieties of ficus - rubber, Benjamin, tiny - garden and vegetable garden
All varieties of ficuses belong to the mulberry family and are evergreens. About 2000 species of ficuses are described, among which there are trees of impressive size with large leaves, and there are ground cover ficuses with small leaves and ampelous ones. In indoor conditions, about 20 species are grown.
The most popular in indoor culture are the "head of the family" rubber-bearing ficus Ficus elastica and its varieties rubber-bearing ficus decora and Robusta rubber-bearing ficus. Very common among indoor plants:
Ficus rubber-bearing robusta Tinika
Rubber ficus - in room conditions, it is a tree 1.5-2 m high, with large and dense leathery oval-shaped leaves, up to 35 cm long and 10-20 cm wide, forms aerial support-roots. The birthplace of this ficus is Burma, Nepal and the tropics of India, the Himalayas, Sri Lanka, West Africa, where the tree grows up to 25-30 m tall. The trunk of the rubber-bearing ficus branches weakly. It has been used in indoor floriculture since 1815 - back in the 19th century. grew its narrow-leaved form. Green forms of this ficus are easier in culture than variegated ones. Ficus robusta has larger and wider leaves than decora ficus. Variegated varieties of rubber-bearing ficus are ficus Black prince Ficus elastica Black Princ with almost black leaves, ficus docheri Ficus elastica doescheri with variegated leaves, cream spots and a red median vein, in ficus schrijvereana cream and yellow spots on the leaves form a complex marble pattern, ficus Ficus tricolor, together with cream spots, has light pink streaks on green leaves, and the rubber-bearing Ficus elastica variegata is distinguished by the creamy edges of the leaf blade. The leaves of these species must be kept clean. And if a leaf or a short cutting on which it sits is damaged, the ficus secretes white poisonous juice. To prevent it from causing poisoning, wash your hands thoroughly after working with ficus. This ficus in room culture practically does not bloom, but in general it is unpretentious and adapts well to the surrounding conditions. With an excess of moisture in the soil during a relative dormant period, rubber ficus can shed its leaves. The same thing happens in too dry soil. Although rubbery ficus is not whimsical to air humidity, it can withstand high air dryness and high temperatures, and is not picky about bright lighting. Variegated forms do not withstand direct sunlight, dry earthen coma, require frequent spraying and bathing of the leaves, grow more slowly than ficuses with solid green leaves.
Lyre ficus - large light green rigid leaves in shape and size resemble the silhouette of a violin, and at a young age they are slightly pubescent or covered with a waxy coating. A relief of white veins protrudes on leathery glossy leaves, a leaf blade 50-60 cm long, 30 cm wide. The lyre-like ficus tree reaches 12 m in height in natural conditions. The trunk is erect, weakly branched. It has no air roots. Needs good natural light, but gets burned in direct sunlight.
Dwarf ficus (ficus pumila) or tiny is an ampelous plant, creeping or climbing, with numerous long and thin shoots up to 5 m long, covering the soil with a thick carpet and letting in roots (it grows to the soil with adventitious roots). Originally from China and Japan. The leaves of the dwarf ficus are small, heart-shaped, slightly corrugated, up to 2.5 cm long, and on young shoots there are plates of asymmetric shape. If a dwarf ficus is propagated vegetatively with such shoots, then the asymmetry is preserved in an adult plant in the future. With age, the size of the leaves increases to 10 cm. There are variegated forms of dwarf ficus. And in a ficus of a dwarf form, mini leaves do not exceed 0.7 cm in length. The shoots of a dwarf ficus grow very slowly, the culture can more easily withstand a lack of lighting than direct sunlight. The growth rate of shoots increases with increased temperature and humidity.
Blunted ficus (ficus retusa) - known as ficus Cuban or ficus laurel, comes from tropical Asia, Taiwan and Southeast Asian countries. Glossy leathery dark green leaves 7-10 cm long, ovoid with a pointed edge. Ficus is distinguished by a peculiar stem - a thick trunk of a bizarre shape, thanks to which plants are used for bonsai, this ficus is considered the simplest and most suitable for growing bonsai. The bark of the trunk is covered with reddish dotted spots, through which gas exchange takes place.
Ficus carica, fig, fig tree
Ficus creeping is a miniature shrub creeping on the ground or climbing the bark of trees with tiny rounded leaves. It grows slowly in the shade, but in good light it can cover a square meter of area in a few months. This type of ficus needs more than others in abundant and frequent watering, does not tolerate overdrying an earthen coma. With age, the shoots become lignified, become like dry bark and the ficus loses its decorative effect. Attaching the adventitious roots to the surface, the creeping ficus completely covers everything under it.
Rust-leaved ficus (Australian ficus) is a low sprawling evergreen tree of rust-leaved ficus similar to rubbery ficus, but small in size. Young shoots of this ficus have a reddish tint, and leathery dark green leaves up to 25 cm long and 8-10 cm wide. Apical buds, large up to 5 cm, are also pubescent, due to which they acquire a bright pink color. There is a variegated form of rusty ficus with a creamy white border along the edge of the leaf. There are many aerial roots on the lower part of the trunk.
Ficus Benjamin - very popular in indoor culture due to its versatile size and medium leaf shape, it looks more like a tree than others. There are many varieties of Benjamin ficus - Nuda, Hawaii, Natasha, variegata, Starlight, Gold Princes, but they all resemble a weeping tree up to 2 m tall in shape. The only difference is in the shape of the leaves and color, for example, in the form of ficus Benjamin Baroque, the leaf blades are twisted in a spiral. Ficus Benjamin has ovoid leaves with a narrow pointed edge, in some varieties they are wider, in others the leaves are narrower, up to 12 cm long. The color can be either one-color light green, iridescent in the sun, or two-color. Benjamin's ficuses produce airy roots-props, from which flower growers make beautiful weaves, with age, the roots passionate among themselves, forming an openwork decorative trunk with light brown bark. The plant is very unpretentious. The vertical stems of Benjamin's ficus are very weak, quickly taking a horizontal direction. To give stability, several copies of this ficus are planted in the pot at once. Ficus stalks easily tolerate cutting.
Ficus carica is a fig or fig tree known to everyone from biblical motives. It was its leaves that served Adam and Eve as their first clothing in paradise, and the fig fruit was thus forbidden. The homeland of the ficus caricum is Europe, the Middle East, North and South Africa, India, the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Afghanistan, the Mediterranean. This ficus is very ancient and has been cultivated since ancient times. A small, tree-like, deciduous shrub with a spreading crown. Broad-lobed strongly palmate-incised petiole leaves with prominent light yellow or white median veins are very decorative, rough to the touch, fall off in winter. In case of damage, milky juice is released. With proper care, figs easily bloom and bear fruit in room conditions, forming flattened spherical or pear-shaped infructescences, which are called wine berries. The flowers of the fig tree are invisible, therefore in China this type of ficus is often called "fruit without a flower." Today, varieties of ficus caricus are already known, which do not require fertilization for fruiting - this is the variety Dalmatika, Kadata, Sochi-7, Black San Pedro, Black Crimean, Shuisky. In October-November, it can drop leaves. In winter, this type of ficus is kept at low temperatures and watered occasionally. More photophilous than other types of ficuses.
Rooting ficus is a very unusual species with thin curly shoots, originally from India. The leaf blade is ovoid, pointed, sitting on a short petiole, the blade is 5-7 cm long, dark green with a white border along the edge.
Ficus montana (mountain ficus) - originates from Southeast Asia, Indochina, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, New Guinea and the Malacca Peninsula. The leaf blade is bright green with darker central veins that sit in the back. The leaf of this ficus is ovoid, slightly serrate along the edge, 5-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, resembling oak leaves in shape. On the underside, pubescent with bristly hairs, ficus shoots are also pubescent. The tree-like shrub reaches 1.5 m in height. It doesn't grow too fast, but it doesn't grow too slowly.
Ivy ficus is a climbing shrub that forms airy adventitious roots in the nodes of the leaves. Native to North India, Burma, South China, Laos and Thailand. Two-row leaves on thick petioles, leathery leaf blades are narrow elliptic with a pointed edge, 6-11 cm long, 3.5-5 cm wide, pubescent with bristles on the underside.
Ficus Ali, Binnandian ficus
Ficus dwarf variegated form
Sacred ficus (religious ficus) - has wide heart-shaped leaves up to 10-20 cm long, up to 15 cm wide with a sharp tip - this is the so-called drip tip. When the atmospheric pressure changes, sap is formed at the ends of the leaves of the sacred ficus - this is called the cry of the sacred tree. The length of the petioles is twice the length of the leaf blade. The greenish-blue leaf has a pronounced white-yellow central vein. Young leaves are rolled into a tube. It comes from Southeast Asia - India, China, Taiwan, Thailand, and also from Pakista na. In India, this ficus is very revered by Buddhists, who believe that during meditation it was under this sacred ficus that Buddha reached the state of nirvana. In Bombay, the religious ficus is known, which is more than 3 millennia old. Deciduous tree in nature reaches 30 m in height, in the lower part of the trunk forms aerial support-roots. At high temperatures and dry air, it can shed leaves, does not tolerate dry air.
Ficus variegated - a slow-growing shrub at home barely reaches a height of 1 m. Leathery dark green leaf blades are dotted with small brown specks. The leaves are small in shape, oval-rounded, smoothly turning into a green petiole. The name of this variety is given due to the fact that on one plant you can find leaves of completely different and unique shapes. Ties greenish olive-sized fruits, decorative but not edible.
Ficus triangular - leaves 7-10 cm long, 5-8 cm wide triangular, the edge of the leaf is the base of the triangle with a small notch, and the acute angle smoothly turns into the petiole. Dark green glossy leathery leaf blade with a deep median vein dividing the leaf symmetrically in half. The homeland of the triangular ficus is tropical Africa. The woody shrub grows up to 30 m in height in natural conditions. Aging plants are invasive and able to inhibit shorter plants, strangle them in their shoots. Young triangular ficuses often grow as epiphytes. In room culture, it bears fruit abundantly, forming small pea berries of light yellow color. There are variegated forms of triangular ficus. Requires a moderate temperature of 15-18 degrees, moderate watering and medium light.
Ficus Bengal - banyan tree, very attractive plant, branches well, side shoots grow almost horizontally and give aerial roots that hang down to the ground. Growing into the soil, the roots form many trunks under one crown. In nature, this ficus grows in plantations and is an invasive species, since it destroys smaller plants under it. In indoor conditions, magnificent bonsai are created from Bengal ficus. The leaves of this ficus are up to 20 cm in length, smaller than those of the rubber plant, but they are similar in shape, and at a young age they are also pubescent. Indoors, the tree can grow up to 7 m tall.
Ficus Parcella is a highly decorative, densely leafy, fast-growing tree, unlike any of its fellow ficuses. Leaves broadly oval with a drawn edge, tough, bright green in color with white-yellow splashes or streaks over the entire surface. The size of the leaf blade of this variety of ficus reaches 15-18 cm. It is thermophilic, loves spraying and bathing the leaves, does not tolerate bright lighting, and grows slowly.
Rough ficus (ficus asper) is a densely leafy tree of medium height, reaches a height of 1.5 m, branches well, but the lower part of the trunk is bare. Leaves are rigid, narrow-lanceolate, 10-15 cm long; against a dark green background, there are bright white and pink spots and dashes forming a marble pattern. Likes moderate drought (the soil should be constantly barely wet), diffused lighting.
Ficus deltoliferous - a tree-like shrub - less often a tree, whose homeland is South-East Asia - Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, where it grows up to 5-6 m tall. Slow growing species, like a variegated ficus. Leathery dark green leaves of a deltoid shape - similar to a triangular ficus, but more rounded and with smoothed corners, glossy, 4-8 cm long, up to 7 cm wide, tapering towards the petiole. Ficus deltoid forms decorative fruits the size of a pea, like those of a variegated ficus.
Boxwood ficus is a bushy plant that has small leaves up to 2.5 cm long, dark green in color, similar to boxwood leaves, with smooth edges and a blunt top. Originally from Africa. In room culture, it produces inflorescences in the axils of the leaves, which form decorative infructescences, initially green, and then reddish-brown. The boxwood ficus is used due to its flexible stem at a young age for the formation of bonsai. In older shoots, plasticity is lost.
Ficus Ali is a ficus binnendian, a plant native to Southeast Asia, from the island of Java. In nature, ficus ali is a tree with a drooping crown that grows up to 20 m in height. Long narrow leaves similar in shape to willow or oleander leaves, can be up to 30 cm long and 6 cm wide. The leaf blade is leathery, glossy, concave along the central vein, which is well expressed on the outside of the leaf. There are variegated varieties of binnendeyka ficus. Fast growing tree.
Ficus mountain montana