6 reasons homemade pickles might not survive the winter
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When preserving food, you should know that homemade preparations run the risk of not surviving the winter. And this may be due to several factors.
The place where the canning is placed should be cool. In a warm environment, pathogens are activated, which enter the banks with ineffective sterilization.
In a cool environment, they hardly progress.
It is optimal to store pickles at a temperature not exceeding 15 degrees. In the cold season, such a place can be a balcony or an unheated vestibule. In summer, it is better to transfer the banks to the cellar.
It is a mistake to believe that storing curls in the cold will increase the shelf life. In the cold, conservation will not last long. The contents of the jars will quickly freeze and the glass containers will simply burst.
Frozen foods lose their taste, the structure of their cells is destroyed.
As a result, after winter there is a risk of getting an absolute substandard - a soggy vegetable mass of an unsightly look with a barely perceptible taste.
Homemade pickles should be stored in a dark place because sunlight breaks down the vitamins in the food. He especially destroys group B.
Canned meat with fat under the influence of light is oxidized and rancid. This also applies to preserves and jams.
Canned vegetables are also light sensitive. For example, potatoes produce solanine. This substance has a harmful effect on the human body.
A prerequisite for long-term storage of conservation is the dryness of the environment. With excessive humidity in the storage, dampness is formed, which leads to the appearance of mold and fungal growth.The danger is also that condensation accumulates on the cans, which causes corrosion of the metal lids. Rust particles trapped inside the can will quickly deteriorate the contents.
Lack of air flow
Any food storage needs constant ventilation to keep the air dry and not stagnant. If there is no air circulation, then condensation will form on the walls, causing dampness.
In a damp room, all conditions are created for pathogenic fungi that can infect banks.
After several weeks of storage in such a room, the lids will corrode so much that their contents become dangerous for consumption.
Violations of conservation technology
The main rules of canning are sterility and tightness of containers. The most effective ways to sterilize cans are: boiling water, steam, in the oven or in the microwave.
Products must also be heat treated.
It strengthens tissues and displaces air. This significantly increases the shelf life of canned food. Stewing, boiling and frying are suitable for heat treatment.
Darkening of a vegetable can occur for several reasons:
- The oxidation of mineral substances that make up the root crops occurs under the influence of oxygen.
- Peeling with a blunt knife and removing too thick skin.
- The use of a large amount of fertilizer when growing.
- Selection of a variety that is unsuitable for long-term storage.
- Incorrect storage conditions.
During cooking, the root vegetable may darken if it was cooked in the same container with other vegetables, for example, potatoes, beets. The loss of taste of the peeled fruit occurs due to the loss of moisture, wilting and drying out.
What are fluorescent lamps
Known in everyday life as the keys of warm light, the devices consist of a sealed glass tube with a layer of phosphor deposited from the inside, filled with argon, an inert gas under high pressure. In addition to argon, there is also a small amount of mercury in the tube, which releases mercury vapor when heated.
Advice! Fluorescent lamps cannot be thrown away as ordinary trash due to the threat of soil contamination with mercury.
Fluorescent lamps rely on ultraviolet light for normal plant growth
In fact, these are the same incandescent lamps with a number of changes, in which the tungsten filament creates enough heat so that electrical discharges in an atmosphere of mixing argon and mercury vapor provoke the appearance of additional ultraviolet radiation, invisible to the eye, but extremely important for normal plant growth.
A phosphor, which is a mixture of substances based on a phosphorus, is responsible for the spectrum and strength of the glow - as a result, the power of the device is five times more than the standard.
Where and how best to store pineapples
Pineapple is a delicate product, does not tolerate excessive cooling, requires attention and a special microclimate.
The optimal mode, how to keep pineapple at home - on the balcony or in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 6 ... + 8 ° and a humidity of 85-90% for 10-14 days. At a room temperature of about + 24 °, ripe pineapple can be stored for 2-4 days.
Unripe exotic fruit is stored at a temperature of + 22 ... + 25 ° for 1 week. Be sure to monitor the ripening process. If after 3-5 days the greens remain on the scales, it will no longer ripen, but simply deteriorate. This happens when the plant is cut from the bush too early. It is dangerous to eat it. The sap of an unripe plant burns the lips and causes indigestion.
Whole fruits are stored at room temperature for 2-3 days. Then the acidification processes will begin, which is also typical when grapes are stored in an apartment.
It is the best solution for fruits of all ripeness. They are wrapped in 3 layers of edible paper and placed in the freshness zone of the refrigerator. Plants are periodically turned over on the other side and the packaging is changed to a new one. The shelf life with this method is up to 2 weeks.
In the freezer
When properly frozen, the product practically does not lose its taste and nutrients.
Step-by-step instructions for storing pineapple in the freezer:
- remove crown and rind
- cut into convenient slices, cubes, wedges
- put on a tray in one layer
- put in the freezer for 2-4 hours
- get frozen parts
- put in an airtight container with a lid
- put back for long-term preservation.
Re-freezing is not allowed. Otherwise, the pulp will become watery and lose 80% of its vitamins.
For long-term storage and simply so that a tasty addition to desserts is always at hand, the fruit is canned. Jam is made from it, candied fruits are candied, compote is made.
Step-by-step recipe for cooking in your own juice:
- peel, wash
- cut 500 g pineapple into half rings
- stir in a bowl with 2 tbsp. Sahara
- cover with a lid, put in the refrigerator for 10-12 hours
- drain the resulting juice into a saucepan, add 1 tbsp. water
- bring to a boil and cook for 5 minutes
- Transfer pineapples from a bowl to a sterilized jar
- pour syrup to the very top and roll up.
According to this recipe, jam is prepared, while pineapple is boiled along with sugar for 10 minutes.
Factors affecting the storage of vegetables.
After harvesting potatoes and vegetables, vital processes and biochemical changes do not stop in them, the keeping quality of products depends on the direction and intensity of their passage.
The problem of storing potatoes and vegetables is very urgent at the present time, its solution is complex. So, the safety of vegetables is largely determined by the conditions of their cultivation. Cultivation of vegetables on irrigated lands increases yields, but due to non-compliance with irrigation technology, this effect is often lost when storing the grown crop.
Watering of potatoes and vegetables intended for long-term storage should be limited in the second half of the growing season, and completely stopped 2-3 weeks before harvesting. However, these recommendations are not always followed when growing vegetables, which leads to increased storage losses.
It is known that the predominant application of one of the types of fertilizers can significantly increase the yield of potatoes and vegetables, but these measures are not always consistent with the keeping quality of the grown products. For example, vegetables and potatoes grown on soils with a high nitrogen supply are unsuitable for long-term storage. This feature was known for a long time, so vegetables and potatoes grown on soils with a high nitrogen content were not laid for long-term storage. Negatively affect the keeping quality of potatoes during storage and mechanical damage to tubers.
Vegetables contain on average about 90% water, and potatoes - 75%. It is known that water is a medium that makes it possible to activate the passage of chemical reactions, and the higher the water content of the plant cell, the more intensively the biochemical processes take place in it. Water and the nutrients dissolved in it serve as a good substrate for the intensive development of microorganisms. As a result, a significant part of the product during storage is lost from decay. In order to successfully store products, it is necessary to have some understanding of the biochemical processes that take place in tubers and vegetables during storage.
After harvesting potatoes and vegetables, vital processes do not stop in them and biochemical changes, on the direction and intensity of the passage of which the keeping quality of the product depends. Among the changes that occur in potatoes and vegetables during storage, the respiration process is of great importance, which determines the direction of metabolism and the intensity of their passage.
The essence of respiration is reduced to the slow oxidation of complex organic substances that break down into simpler ones. In the process of breathing, a continuous release of energy occurs, part of which is used by the cells of the plant organism, the other part is released in the form of heat. Respiration uses spare nutrients, primarily carbohydrates. In addition, other substances are involved in the breathing process - fats, proteins.
With a lack of oxygen or during storage of vegetables in the last spring, the coordination of individual links of the respiration process is disrupted and at some stage the oxidation process stops. In this case, anaerobic respiration occurs with the formation of under-oxidized products - alcohol, acetaldehyde, etc. Anaerobic respiration leads to physiological metabolic disorders, which are manifested in dark spots, necrosis, hollow tuber, etc.
The intensity of respiration depends on the type of vegetables, growing conditions, breathing conditions, etc. Vegetables and potatoes immediately after harvesting have a high respiration rate, then this process slows down.
The lowest respiration rate of vegetables is observed at a temperature close to zero, and potatoes - at a temperature of 3-5 ° C. When this temperature drops, potato tubers breathe more intensively, which is explained by the stimulating effect of sugars that accumulate at low storage temperatures. Sharp temperature fluctuations during storage of potatoes and vegetables increase the intensity of their respiration. Tubers and vegetables with mechanical damage breathe much more intensively. Diseased potatoes and vegetables also have a high breathing rate.
The biochemical process of respiration is of great practical importance, since the loss of mass of potatoes and vegetables is strongly influenced by the loss of moisture during storage, which is 75-85% of the total loss of mass. The loss of dry matter, which occurs during respiration, is 15-25%.
Thus, the so-called natural loss is more dependent on the loss of water than on the loss of dry matter. Water losses are due to the intensity of the passage of both biochemical (respiration) and physical processes (moisture evaporation). Intense evaporation of water leads not only to an increase in weight loss, but also to greater rotting of potatoes and vegetables. When plant cells lose moisture, their resistance to various microorganisms sharply decreases.
The rate of evaporation of moisture depends on the type of product. water retention capacity of cell protoplasm, which is determined by the content of proteins and other colloids. as well as on the state of integumentary tissues, anatomical structure of potatoes and vegetables and storage conditions (temperature and humidity).
Evaporation, depending on storage conditions, can be large or not occur at all. So, it was found that when storing potatoes in trenches with soil overfilling, no weight loss was observed at all, but on the contrary, its increase was noted. This is due to the osmotic properties of potato tubers. Due to the high concentration of juice, cells are able to absorb water. If the tubers come into contact with moist soil, they take water out of it and increase in mass. If the soil is dry, then the opposite phenomenon occurs: moisture from the tubers passes into the ground.
Similar changes occur during storage in basements (cellars, etc.): at low relative humidity, tubers or root crops lose more moisture. wither, in connection with which their consumer value decreases.
The keeping quality of potatoes depends on many factors.: biological characteristics of the variety, weather and agrotechnical conditions during cultivation, temperature and humidity conditions during storage, etc. The decisive factor determining the preservation is the quality of the potato tubers laid for storage. At the same time, the following requirements are imposed on them: they must be whole, dry, not germinated, uncontaminated, without diseases, uniform in color and shape for late potatoes - mature with a dense skin. It is not allowed to keep crushed tubers affected by wet, dry, ring, button rot and late blight, as well as potatoes with foreign odors caused by growing conditions (from the use of wastewater and pesticides). Defective tubers (frozen, affected by anaerobiosis) have a negative effect on the keeping quality of all potatoes, contributing to the infection of healthy tubers. For healthy dry potatoes, it is customary to observe three storage periods: post-harvest, main and spring.
Immediately after harvesting, it is necessary to create conditions for preparing the tubers for winter storage. Tubers during this period have a high respiration rate, increased release of heat and moisture. At this time, the tubers are rapidly healed of mechanical damage inflicted on them during the harvesting process. This feature of tubers is of great practical importance. When storing potatoes, microorganisms infect only tubers with damaged integumentary tissues. Microorganisms do not penetrate through intact skin. The fastest healing of injuries occurs at high temperatures and high humidity. In this regard, in the post-harvest period, which lasts 2-3 weeks, the temperature in the mass of potatoes should be 12-18 ° C and the air humidity should be 90-95%.
The treatment period is not carried out in the following cases. If the potato mass contains a significant number of defective tubers (frozen, affected by late blight, ring rot), then first of all it is sorted out, poor-quality tubers are removed, and the remaining ones are stored at a low temperature (1-2 ° C) so that putrefactive microorganisms do not develop.Holding this period is impractical for late storage of potatoes, if the tubers have been in temporary piles for a long time, and also if purchased (imported) potatoes are used for storage, since the healing of damage in such cases occurs extremely slowly.
The temperature regime for storing potatoes is the subject of research by many scientists. A number of researchers consider it expedient to store potatoes at a low temperature - 1-2 ° C and even at zero. The choice of this mode is explained by the fact that at a low storage temperature, germination is delayed and the vital activity of microorganisms slows down.
The results of other studies indicate that at low storage temperatures, the keeping quality of tubers deteriorates significantly. At a lower temperature, the most stable and, therefore, the most aggressive microorganisms remain, which infect the tubers and cause them to rot. In addition, low temperatures contribute to the death of eyes and individual tissue cells, which ultimately leads to spoilage of tubers. Therefore, the closer the storage temperature is to the germination temperature, the less the risk of physiological spoilage of tubers. Therefore, a storage temperature close to the germination temperature of the tubers is recommended. For most potato varieties, this temperature is 2-4 ° C. When storing potatoes at low temperatures (from 0 to - 1 ° C), in addition to infectious diseases, tubers are affected by physiological diseases, which are expressed in darkening of the pulp or the formation of hollowness. Externally, tubers with darkening pulp or hollowness do not differ from healthy tubers, but such potatoes are not suitable for consumption.
During the main storage period, the tubers are dormant, the intensity of their vital processes slows down. The rest period is subdivided into forced, which stops as soon as favorable conditions for growth are created, and deep rest, or "natural", is a state when growth does not occur despite favorable conditions. The duration of the dormant period is from one to three months, depending on the variety and growing conditions. A rainy, cold summer helps to lengthen the dormant period, and dry and hot weather during the growing season of plants shortens it, and sometimes even completely removes it.
At storage temperatures above 4 ° C, the tubers germinate, which leads to a decrease in the quality of potatoes. To delay germination by the end of the storage period, when the tubers come out of deep dormancy (starting in March), it is necessary to maintain a low air temperature of 1 ° C. Short-term (1-2 months) storage of potatoes during this period at this temperature does not reduce its qualities. 13 a period of deep dormancy, even a slight increase in storage temperature does not cause germination of potatoes.
Mineral fertilizers during the cultivation of potatoes have a significant effect on its keeping quality during long-term storage. Tubers grown with an excess of nitrogen contain more sugars, their respiration is more intense than with an excess of phosphorus and potassium. Losses of tubers grown with an excess of nitrogen nutrition increase due to increased respiration and disease. The use of high doses of mineral fertilizers when growing potatoes does not reduce its keeping quality, taste, and even less susceptibility to dry rot of potatoes is observed, but only if they are used in the correct ratio.
The keeping quality of potatoes during long-term storage is greatly influenced by its varietal characteristics. Recent studies show that a differentiated storage regime should be used for potatoes. Some varieties can be stored at lower temperatures, while others require a higher storage temperature. So, potato varieties Priekulsky early, Falensky, Berlichingem, Enron, Northern rose are better preserved at a temperature of 1.5-2 ° C Skorospelka, Ogonek, Agrotechnical, Temp, Loshitsky, Foran - at a temperature of 1.5-3 ° C, and such varieties such as Lorkh, Table 19, Razvaristy, Start, require higher temperatures during storage - 3-5 ° C.
Let us also recall the widely used folk storage method - alternating placement of potatoes and beets. Tubers sweat during long-term storage, and root crops absorb moisture, as a result, their turgor (water-cut indicator) is preserved.
The bulkhead of potatoes is carried out only in case of the appearance of diseases that are easily transmitted from tuber to tuber. In all other cases, it should be avoided, since during the bulkhead, the entire mass of potatoes becomes infected with diseases, the gaseous microenvironment formed in the mass of the product and characterized by an increased content of carbon dioxide is disrupted. In addition, additional mechanical damage is caused to the tubers. Withered tubers should be used first.
Storing pears for the winter at home
Storing pears for the winter at home
In storage, pears are much more "capricious" than apples. The correct container, suitable storage conditions will help keep the fruits fresh for a long time.
Choosing a storage location
If you store pears at room temperature in an apartment, they will quickly deteriorate. The best options:
- insulated loggia
- unheated pantry
The choice of location depends on the amount of the crop and the possibilities. The main condition is optimal temperature. Disinfection is carried out in the underground or basement, the easiest way is to do it with the help of a sulfur checker or whitewash the walls and ceiling with slaked lime.
Advice! Disinfection of the premises is carried out 2 weeks before the pears are placed for storage.
Before laying them down, the room is well ventilated so that it is cool there and condensation does not accumulate. Fruits should not lie next to vegetables, otherwise they quickly deteriorate, the same applies to the refrigerator, and the loggia should freeze in winter.
How to keep pears fresh for the winter?
Pear: storage conditions for fruits
How to keep pears fresh for the winter? This requires constant and specific indicators:
- humidity not less than 85%, so as not to dry out and not more than 95%, otherwise rotting will begin
- when storing pears in the refrigerator, you can maintain a temperature of + 5 degrees, in other storages - about 0, permissible from -1 to +1 degrees
- lack of light.
Advice! Sudden temperature fluctuations negatively affect the shelf life of pears.
Selection and preparation of containers
The best container for storing pears is a wooden uncut box. Natural material breathes, does not accumulate condensate, and maintains a constant temperature better. The sides of the box must have slots or perforated holes. Requirements for wooden boxes:
- small size
- absence of sharp ends of nails and other fastening materials on the surface
- the ability to put them one on top of the other so that there is a layer of air.
Small amounts of fruit can be stored in plastic bags. When using such a container, the processes of respiration and ripening are slowed down, therefore pears retain their commercial quality longer. Package requirements:
- capacity no more than 3 kg
- film thickness from 30 to 50 microns
- the film should not be stabilized.
Better yet, pears are stored in polyethylene bags with selectively permeable membranes. They allow oxygen to pass through, trapping carbon dioxide, which reduces the respiration rate of the fruit.
Storage boxes need to be disinfected. The easiest way to do this is to wipe it with a napkin moistened with vodka. It also moistens the paper with which the bottom and walls of the box are covered, 2-3 layers are needed.
How to store pears for the winter, rules
Well-laid pears last longer and spoil less. How to do it?
- The fruits are laid with the stalks up.
- The number of layers is no more than 3.
- They are shifted with sheets of thick paper, which it is desirable to soak with vodka.
- Pears are placed diagonally in boxes.
- Their stalks should not come into contact with neighboring fruits.
- Each fruit is wrapped in tissue paper.
- The most immature fruits are laid down, the more ripe ones are placed on top.
Advice! Small fruits keep better than large ones.
The boxes should not stand next to other fruits or vegetables. They are not placed on the floor, but raised above it by at least 20 cm, and better still higher. It is allowed to put boxes on top of each other so that they do not fit tightly - space is needed for ventilation. If pears are placed in bags, two fruits are placed in width, up to 5 in length.
Advice! It is best to put pears for storage chilled - there will be less condensation, therefore, after removing them, they are immediately sent to the basement, subfloor or refrigerator.
Storing pears: ways
So that the fruits do not touch each other, they are sprinkled with various materials:
- calcined and cooled sand
- shavings obtained from soft wood
- dry leaves of fern or mountain ash.
The boxes can be placed on shelves in the basement or cellar. Before sending pears for storage in plastic bags, they are sealed by welding or tightly tying the free end. The bags are placed on the shelves in one layer so that they do not come into contact with each other, otherwise condensation may form. The bags can be hung on hooks in the ceiling. They should not touch each other.
When storing pears in the refrigerator, plastic bags are not sealed; on the contrary, it is better if they are perforated.
Best autoclave recipes
The use of an electric autoclave for canning can significantly reduce time costs and improve storage reliability. To learn how to cook deliciously in an autoclave, you should study the technological instructions for preparing each dish separately.
Popular autoclave recipes: stew
Any type of meat is suitable for stewing. And here one feature is important: if the meat is lean, then the likelihood of its preservation decreases. Therefore, fat or fat must be added to such a product. For 1.5 kg of lean pork, 100 g of lard is enough:
- Season the meat cut into pieces (pepper, salt, bay leaf to taste) and put in clean jars, leaving 1-2 cm to the edge.
- Add some water - 100 ml is enough for 1.5 kg of meat.
- Put fat on top.
- Rolled up with lids, placed in an autoclave and filled with water.
- After reaching t + 120 ° C, incubate for 30 minutes. and turn off the device.
- They let it cool down and only after that they take out the jars.
For those who like jelly, you can put seeds (with the exception of cerebral ones) and more water, and for spice lovers, add your favorite seasonings.
Autoclave pate recipe
Pate is minced meat with the addition of liver, mushrooms, eggs, spices, which is prepared in a special way. The composition of the product may vary depending on the type of meat, the amount of ingredients and their composition. Cooking according to the classic recipe is as follows (calculation for 10 cans of 0.5 l):
- Pass through a meat grinder 1.8 kg of pork liver and lean pork, not forgetting to add butter (400 g).
- Beat 10 eggs, add 50 g of salt and mix thoroughly.
- Put 1 bay leaf at the bottom of the cans and spread the prepared pate, leaving a gap of 1-1.5 cm to the neck.
- The cans are rolled up with tin lids and placed in an autoclave.
- Each row is fixed with clamping cassettes and the apparatus is filled with water, leaving 2-3 cm to the edge.
- Tighten the lid with the bolts crosswise to evenly press and start heating.
- At t + 115 ° C, heating is maintained for 40 minutes. , after which it is turned off.
- Allow the autoclave to cool and remove the jars.
Best autoclave recipes: making goulash
Goulash, originally a thick meat and potato soup from Hungarian cuisine, has turned into a purely meat dish with us. Prepared with the addition of vegetables, flour, spices. For 10 cans of 0.5 l you will need:
- 4 kg fried with pieces of meat
- 700 g melted fat
- 250 g onions
- 300 g tomato
- 150 g flour
- 70 g salt and 20 g sugar
- bay leaf and pepper to taste.
Spices (leaf, pepper) are placed on the bottom of cleanly washed cans, then filled with a mixture of fried meat, chopped onions, tomato and flour. Leave a free space of 1.5-2 cm to the top, roll up the lids and place in an autoclave. fixed with clamping cassettes and filled with water. Lower the lid, screw it on and turn on the heating. Upon reaching t + 120 ° C, stand for 40 minutes. and turn off the heating. Take out the jars after cooling.
Fish in an autoclave
Cooking canned fish using an autoclave can take place in two versions: in oil or in tomato. In each case, it is possible to add vegetables, for tomato pouring, as a rule, small fish are used:
- In oil. For 5 cans of 0.5 liters, 2.5 kg of fresh fish are taken, cut into pieces and slightly salted (50 g). After 1 hour, bay leaves and peppercorns are placed on the bottom of sterile jars, the fish is laid out and filled with oil (50 ml per jar). Rolled up and sterilized in an autoclave for about an hour at t + 110 ° C.
- In a tomato. For 0.5 kg of fish, you will need 300 ml of tomato juice, 2 tbsp. l. sunflower oil, 1 tbsp. l. sugar and flour, 1 carrot and 1 onion each, salt and spices to taste. The cleaned fish is mixed with fried vegetables, spices, flour and tomato, placed in jars, rolled up and sent to an autoclave.
For blanks, you can use any recipes for canning in an autoclave - it is important to observe the recommended proportions and instructions for using the device. Having made several blanks, you will be convinced that the preparation of canned food using an autoclave is profitable, reliable and very economical.