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Hibiscus: planting and caring for the garden, reproduction, transplantation and species

Hibiscus: planting and caring for the garden, reproduction, transplantation and species



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Garden plants

Flower hibiscus (lat.Hibiscus) belongs to an extensive genus of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants of the Malvaceae family, numbering about 300 species that grow naturally in the tropics and subtropics of the New and Old World. In a temperate climate, only Syrian hibiscus and trifoliate hibiscus can grow in open ground, as well as a new species obtained in the 40-50s of the twentieth century on the basis of North American marsh hibiscus, bright red and armed, hybrid hibiscus, or garden hibiscus.
All forms of hybrid hibiscus are frost-resistant. Everyone's favorite Chinese rose, or Chinese hibiscus, is grown in our latitudes only as an indoor or greenhouse plant, although the hibiscus rose loves to spend summer vacations in the fresh air.

Planting and caring for hibiscus

  • Landing: in the spring, in the second half of May.
  • Bloom: from late June to early October.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: light, fertile, moisture-permeable - what would suit roses.
  • Watering: regular, especially in the heat, but only after the soil has dried. In drought, watering is carried out daily.
  • Cropping: and sanitary, and rejuvenating, and formative pruning is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow.
  • Top dressing: from June to September - twice a month with mineral fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus and nitrogen; in the fall, potash fertilizers are also added to the complex.
  • Reproduction: seeds, cuttings, layering and grafting.
  • Pests: thrips, spider mites, aphids, whiteflies.
  • Diseases: chlorosis, root rot.

Read more about growing hibiscus below.

Botanical description

The hibiscus garden plant can be a tree, shrub, or herb. For example, tree hibiscus in the garden is a Syrian rose, which is grown both as a standard tree and as a shrub up to one and a half meters high. And herbaceous hibiscus is represented by varieties of hybrid hibiscus. Herbaceous forms of the plant can be annuals, although perennial hibiscus attracts gardeners much more.

Despite the differences in shape, all hibiscus have similarities. The leaves of hibiscus are more or less incised, petiolate. Hibiscus flowers are large, bright, simple or double, with a wide range of colors - white, yellow, crimson, dark red, lilac, blue, violet and purple. There are varieties with a border around the edge of the petals or with an eye in a contrasting color. Hibiscus fruits are five-leafed capsules with seeds. Today, in addition to garden species, there are about five hundred forms and varieties of hibiscus.

Planting hibiscus

When to plant

Before planting, think carefully about where your hibiscus will grow, because the choice of place depends on how long the plant will decorate your garden - with the right site and good care hibiscus grows in one place for up to 20 years! Hibiscus seedlings are planted in the spring, when the threat of night frosts has passed, so that they can take root and grow stronger over the summer. Ideal for hibiscus would be a bright and wind-protected place with light, fertile, moisture-permeable soil - one in which it is good to plant roses. You can even place hibiscus among the roses, they will get along just fine.

Photo: Growing hibiscus outdoors

How to plant

If you are planting a tree-like hibiscus, the hole for it should be twice as large as the root system of the seedling. A drainage layer of broken brick about 15 cm thick is placed at the bottom of the pit, then a ten-centimeter layer of sand, a layer of compost 15 cm thick, and again a layer of sand of the same thickness. To fill the hole, mix the top layer of soil removed during the preparation of the hole with peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 4: 1, carefully place the root ball in the hole so that the root collar is barely underground, and fill the hole with the prepared mixture. Then spud the seedling so that an extensive recess for moisture forms around it, water the plant in this circle, and when the water is absorbed, pour it into the excavation, leveling the surface of the site. If you need to plant hibiscus in the fall, be sure to mulch the trunk circle and tie the plant with spruce branches.

Hibiscus care

Growing conditions

Caring for hibiscus garden is very simple and not laborious. As soon as young green shoots appear on the hibiscus, remove the old, dried stems from it. Loosen the soil around the hibiscus regularly, remove weeds and make sure that the hibiscus bush does not thicken too much. During the active growing season, from June to September, hibiscus needs fertilizing with a high content of phosphorus and nitrogen twice a month, and in the fall, when preparing the plant for winter, in addition to phosphorus fertilizers, potash fertilizers are applied. Unfortunately, a hibiscus flower only lives for a day, but with good care, the plant blooms so profusely that instead of one flower, another immediately opens, so do not forget to remove wilted flowers in time.

Watering

Hibiscus care includes regular watering of the plant, especially in hot weather, but watering the ground under the hibiscus is necessary only after it is completely dry. If the dry period is prolonged, be prepared to water the hibiscus daily.

In the photo: Blooming hibiscus in the garden

Pruning

Hibiscus pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes, as well as for the sake of giving a tree or bush a certain shape. Many people choose to grow hibiscus in the shape of a tree, but this will take time and patience. In a young, freshly planted plant, the branches are shortened to the level of two or three buds, without cutting off only the well-developed trunk. In subsequent years, at the end of winter, trim the side shoots to one or two buds, and the stem to 5-6 buds. When the stem reaches the required height, form the crown of a tree from strong shoots, shortening them into several buds. Remove the undergrowth and lightly trim the top of the trunk.

How to prune hibiscus for plant hygiene? Sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring, before the start of sap flow. Old, diseased, underdeveloped and growing inside the bush shoots are completely removed, and last year's growth is shortened by a third, which greatly stimulates the laying of new flower buds.

Remember: the more the hibiscus is cut, the more it will give young shoots, which means, the more abundant its flowering will be.

Rejuvenating haircut an aged bush involves removing all old, dead branches and shortening the remaining shoots inside the bush by two-thirds. It will be better to cut the branches around the main shoot to different heights - this will give the bush a beautiful shape.

In the photo: How hibiscus blooms

Transfer

If you need to transplant a hibiscus, do it in early spring, after cutting the shoots half the length and before flowering begins, in the same order as already described. How to care for hibiscus after transplant? Do not forget to water the plant abundantly, but otherwise treat it as described in the previous sections, and in a year it will already bloom. If you are replanting a hybrid hibiscus, you can divide the hibiscus rhizome at the same time as the transplant.

Reproduction of garden hibiscus

Reproduction methods

As you can see, both planting and caring for hibiscus is within the power of even novice growers. The reproduction of hibiscus, and the care of it after reproduction is just as simple. Garden hibiscus (Syrian) propagates by layering, grafting, but most often by cuttings and seeds. Hybrid hibiscus propagates by dividing the bush, grafting and green cuttings.

In the photo: Orange hibiscus

Hibiscus from seed

Growing hibiscus from seeds begins from January to March. Before sowing, hibiscus seeds are soaked for half an hour in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, and then for a day in a small amount of epin solution, so that the seeds are barely covered with it. After that, the seeds are sown in containers with a mixture of sand and peat, covered with glass and placed in a warm place, where the temperature is kept within 25-27 ºC, it would be nice to arrange a bottom heating container with sowing.

It is also necessary to regularly ventilate the seed container, remove condensation and moisten the substrate.

When the first leaves develop at the seedlings, they are planted in personal pots. Make sure that the seedlings do not stretch: if they lack light, you will have to arrange artificial lighting for the seedlings. In open ground, hibiscus seedlings are planted in mid-May. Strong specimens can be planted immediately to a permanent place, and weaker ones are planted for growing on a training bed at a distance of about half a meter between specimens. Garden hibiscus, unlike hybrid hibiscus, also propagates by self-sowing.

Propagation by cuttings

For vegetative propagation in the summer, cuttings of hibiscus with two or three internodes are cut, the lower sections of the cuttings are treated with a growth stimulator, then they are planted in greenhouses with a peat substrate and lower heating is organized. Rooting of hibiscus occurs within a month, after which the cuttings are transplanted into pots with leafy soil, peat, turf and sand in equal parts, watered regularly, and when new shoots grow up, they are pinched to stimulate tillering. As soon as a bush is formed, it is transplanted into open ground, and if there is decent care for it, hibiscus from the cuttings will bloom in the first year after planting. Experienced growers manage to root hibiscus cuttings not in the ground, but in water.

In the photo: Large hibiscus flower

Hibiscus pests and diseases

Hibiscus is rarely affected by insects and diseases, but if it suffers from a lack of moisture for a long time in dry weather, it can be occupied by thrips, aphids, whiteflies and spider mites. To eliminate pests, you will have to resort to double treatment of the plant with insecticides Aktellik, Fitoverm, Inta-vir, Karbofos at intervals of a week or ten days.

Of all the known diseases, chlorosis most often affects hibiscus in the garden - the lower leaves of the hibiscus fall off, and the new ones grow yellowish. This happens due to a lack of nitrogen and iron in the soil, therefore, iron chelate should be added to the water for irrigation, and in the spring, do not forget to apply a complex mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen to the soil.

Photo: Growing hibiscus outdoors

Hibiscus turns yellow

Hibiscus leaves turn yellow from chlorosis, as well as in case of trauma to the root system, which the plant could have received during transplantation. If the hibiscus turns yellow due to the roots, then it is necessary to add Zircon or Kornevin to the water for irrigation (see instructions) and for spraying the leaves (three drops per half liter of water). Hibiscus leaves turn yellow as a result of insufficient watering in the sultry dry summer.

Why does not it bloom

If you have planted a hibiscus in a bright, spacious area and take care of it, as required by agricultural technology, but nevertheless it does not want to bloom, most likely it is a lack of phosphorus and boron. And if the shoots have slowed down their growth, then the problem is also a lack of nitrogen. Do not forget to apply the fertilizers necessary for the hibiscus on time, and it will definitely bloom.

Hibiscus leaves fall

If hibiscus leaves fall off in autumn, this is a natural process, but if this happens prematurely, then the problem has arisen either due to improper watering (insufficient or excessive), or the root of the plant is injured. For advice on how to deal with these cases, see the previous sections.

In the photo: Hibiscus in a flowerbed

Hibiscus after flowering

Autumn works

Almost all hybrid perennial hibiscus are winter-hardy, they can be grown throughout Ukraine, and in Russia - only south of Moscow, but subject to shelter for the winter. The ground part of the hybrid hibiscus dies off in the fall, so it is cut off almost to the level of the surface and burned, the remains of the bush are watered abundantly, and then they are sprinkled with earth, and the site, in case of too cold or snowless winter, is mulched with sawdust or dry fallen leaves. The next spring, the powerful rhizomes of the hybrid hibiscus will give new shoots, on which beautiful flowers will bloom.

How to winter hibiscus

How does hibiscus garden, or Syrian winters? In the conditions of the middle lane, he needs a mandatory shelter, especially if you grow terry plant varieties. Some gardeners living in regions with harsh winters dig up hibiscus, place them in a container or large pot and keep them in a basement or other cool room until spring, and in spring they are planted in open ground again. If you decide that your hibiscus will winter in the garden, in the second or third decade of November, when the air temperature will be between -5 ºC and -10 ºC, build a frame around the hibiscus, on which to stretch lutrasil, spunbond or agrotex. If in your area there is no frost stronger than 15 ºC, your hibiscus will be reliably protected by such structures.

In the photo: Hibiscus flowering

However, the best way to protect hibiscus from frost, and at the same time to avoid their drying out under materials that do not allow air to pass through, is to cover the hibiscus bushes with spruce branches, which accumulate snow on itself and prevent the hibiscus from sweating and overheating. The plant is covered with a spruce tree in three layers, applying branches, like a hut, having previously tied a hibiscus bush with a rope and putting a sack bag on it. However, rodents often crawl into such shelters and in the warmth eat the bark on the hibiscus, dooming the plant to death. To prevent mice or rats from destroying your plant, arrange mousetraps around the hibiscus or put bait under cover - wheat poisoned from rodents.

Types and varieties

Garden hibiscus is represented mainly by varieties of Syrian hibiscus, however, other plant species, as well as their varieties, are grown in culture.

Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus)

Surprisingly, it comes from China, not Syria. In nature, plants of this species reach a height of 5-6 meters and are deciduous shrubs with bright green ovoid leaves about 10 cm long and single flowers of different colors. In culture, in addition to hibiscus with simple flowers, terry hibiscus is grown, and the form of the plant can be both bush and standard. Of the popular varieties, the most interesting are:

  • Diana - shrub up to 2 m high with wavy white flowers about 12 cm in diameter along the edge of the petals;
  • Vayelith Ilar Double - a very powerful upright bush with double or semi-double flowers of a violet-blue hue with red spots in the middle;
  • Pink Giant - a bush with single pink flowers with a purple spot at the base of the petals;
  • Carneus Plenus - a shrub with flexible shoots and double pink-pink flowers with a purple spot in the middle.

In the photo: Syrian hibiscus (Hibiscus syriacus)

Hibiscus trifoliate (Hibiscus trionum)

The species is native to central and North Africa, although today it is widely grown in all areas of irrigated agriculture. The root of this plant is pivotal, the stem is straight, branched, up to 80 cm high. The leaves are tripartite, petiolar, alternate, with pubescence. The flowers are yellowish, up to 4 cm in diameter, with a dark red center.

A peculiarity of the species is that the flowers open in the morning for only a few hours, and close in the afternoon.

Flowering of this type of plants lasts more than a month, because a new hibiscus bud is formed in the axil of each leaf, and when optimal conditions are created for hibiscus trifoli, new flowers will appear daily.

In the photo: Hibiscus trifoliate (Hibiscus trionum)

Hybrid hibiscus (Hibiscus hybrida)

In addition to these two species, which grow both in the wild and in culture, hybrid hibiscus and its varieties are grown as garden plants. As already mentioned, this hybrid was bred by crossing three North American species - hibiscus holly (armed), bright red and marsh. Hybrid hibiscus - herbaceous perennials, which are distinguished by spectacular and very large flowers. The best varieties:

  • Youth - a bush up to one and a half meters high, weakly branched, stems of a light yellow-green hue, from which shoots extend at an angle of 60º. The leaves are also yellow-green, three- or five-cut. Pink flowers with a white bottom and a bowl, up to 10 cm in diameter, are tulip-shaped;
  • Late - a compact bush of approximately one meter in height and the same diameter, densely leafy with toothed, oval-arrow-shaped leaves with light veins on thick petioles. Flowers, crimson-pink with a lilac shade in the form of narrow bells up to 7 cm in diameter, open on short thick peduncles;

Photo: Hibiscus hybrid (Hibiscus hybrida)

  • Pale pink - a herbaceous bush up to 170 cm high with short shoots extending at an angle of 60º from the branches, with three-cut yellow-green leaves with a serrated edge and tulip-shaped pink flowers up to 12 cm in diameter with a white bottom and bowl;
  • Pink-porcelain - bush up to 130 cm, branched stems, yellow-green, deeply incised leaves with a wide, protruding middle lobe, dusty yellow-green hue, petioles up to 6 cm long. Large bell-shaped light pink flowers with barely noticeable yellowness and a white throat, up to 12 cm in diameter, sit in bunches on short peduncles.

Is hibiscus a flower of death?

All superstitions that hibiscus brings misfortune to the owners, that its flowering means impending death, in fact refer to indoor hibiscus, namely the Chinese rose, or Chinese hibiscus. About garden hibiscus, be it Syrian or hybrid, no one has come up with anything yet, so feel free to grow this beautiful and undemanding flower in your garden.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Malvaceae family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about Herbaceous plants
  8. Shrub Information

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Mallow Weeds Shrubs Plants on G


Growing hibiscus in the garden: planting reproduction pests and diseases

Garden hibiscus is increasingly found in plots in our country. He is loved for its beautiful decorative appearance, bright large flowers and undemanding care. Despite the fact that garden hibiscus belongs to exotic plants, it is not difficult to grow it in our climatic zone. In our article, we will tell you how to properly plant and care for this plant, how to propagate and treat it in case of diseases, as well as how to achieve abundant flowering and a beautiful appearance.


Syrian hibiscus (garden)

In the spring, at the height of the summer cottage season, at a time when the sale of seedlings of roses and garden plants is unfolding in the markets, we often see unremarkable seedlings, which, according to the sellers, are called "hibiscus". Many flower growers know Hibiscus as a houseplant - a Chinese rose and this confuses them, because it is sold as a garden flower, like hydrangeas, roses and other garden flower crops. This is not surprising at all - the garden hibiscus, which is called "Syrian Hibiscus", is really being sold.

Today, there are about 200 species of various hibiscus in nature, all of them grow in a tropical climate and, unfortunately, they absolutely cannot survive in ours. It can feel pretty good in a temperate climate, of course, provided that for the winter it will be insulated and covered in the same way as it is usually done with garden roses. If in the climate where it is planted winters are quite warm, there is almost 100% guarantee that the flower will take root and will delight every summer with its unusually beautiful flowering.

Garden hibiscus requires a lot of maintenance. The main condition for planting it in the soil is good lighting. The flower does not like shade, only with a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light will the flower delight you with lush flowering in the garden. Syrian hibiscus perfectly coexists with any varieties of roses. It grows no more than 1.5 meters in height and has a fairly compact shape. Hibiscus is considered an ideal plant for a rose garden or rock garden.

Also, hibiscus looks very good as a single plant when decorating the landscape of the site. If you live in a warm climate, plant lavender bushes around it. It is very beautiful and also the lavender scent will protect the Syrian hibiscus from aphids and insects. This plant exists of 2 types: terry and non-terry varieties. When purchasing a plant, it is worth remembering that terry varieties tolerate winter better and are more frost-resistant.

The Syrian hibiscus does not need any special soil. It takes root well on the same one on which you traditionally plant roses. It must be permeable and nutritious enough.

The flower is usually watered sparingly, as it does not need intensive watering and may even disappear because of this. But you also need to monitor the rate of drying out of the soil, because in summer in hot climates, the flower may need daily watering. During the period of active growth and flowering (June-September), this garden culture needs periodic feeding with garden fertilizers, which have a high phosphorus content. Typically, Syrian hibiscus is poured every two weeks. And so that winter does not become stress for the plant, it is fed with potassium fertilizer in the fall.

If this is your first time starting this plant, it is better to purchase ready-made strong seedlings with a sustainably developed root system. Especially if you want to grow Syrian hibiscus in cold climates. The plant will take root over the summer, get stronger, you prepare it for winter, and it will survive it safely. Despite the fact that the plant is mainly propagated by seedlings by cuttings, there is another option for growing this garden crop - from seeds. They are planted in the soil in the spring, when there are no more night frosts and the earth has warmed up enough.

If you decide to grow a flower from a cutting, do it better in the summer. To do this, the cutting is placed in a container filled with water (it is better to close it from direct sunlight, since the root system will break through in the water). And when you see that the roots have appeared, you can safely transplant it into a pot with soil, which you can take in your garden or buy prepared soil in a special store. With the arrival of cold weather, a pot with a seedling is brought into the house, and in the spring it is already quite ready to be planted in open ground.

To achieve abundant flowering, it is necessary not only to properly grow and feed the plant, but also to cut it off. Hibiscus forms buds on young shoots, therefore, the more of them, the more abundant the flowering will be. In order for the plant to give fresh shoots, it is cut 3-4 times a year. The flower tolerates pruning well and responds positively to it. Usually pruned at the end of winter, before the flower begins a period of active growth. Also, the plant is cut off not only in order to create a lush flowering, but also to form a decorative form for the bush.

In the southern regions, where conditions are most suitable for hibiscus and it is found everywhere, you can see various blooming compositions in the form of a cube, ball, pyramid, etc. Due to the compactness of the flower, everyone has the opportunity to plant it on their balcony, terrace or in the winter garden ... And not only in the flower garden.

A distinctive feature of hibiscus is that the life span of its flowers is very short, but despite this, a new one is quickly revealed in the place of the previous one. This is not to be feared. Worse, when the abundant drying of the flowers begins, in this case, the flower most likely does not have enough watering and it is in dry ground.

If you really want to have this flower, but live in a harsh climate, you can plant it, but in the winter you will have to dig it up and put it in the basement or in the house until spring. With good care, Syrian hibiscus can continue to bloom in your home during the winter. Hibiscus is a perennial plant and can do without transplanting for up to 20 years.


How to care for a garden yucca flower?

After planting, the plants need very moderate watering, sanitization, which consists in removing dead foliage and wilted peduncles, rare dressing and pruning.

Watering is carried out at the root, trying not to flood the core of the outlet, since the water remaining here for a long time is the main reason for crown decay and the need for cardinal pruning of the yucca.

As a rule, garden yucca is rarely affected by pests or diseases and, with a good shelter, winters well even in the Moscow region. So that the roots of the plant breathe more actively, and the moisture remaining under the dense rosette does not cause rotting of the lower leaves and roots, the space under the garden yucca is regularly loosened, simultaneously removing weeds and fallen leaf plates.

If the place for the culture was initially chosen incorrectly, the plant up to three years of age can be transferred to another, more suitable site.

How to transplant a yucca? Although the plant belongs to evergreen crops, for the winter its biological processes freeze, and the new growing season begins only in spring. This time is used for transplanting garden yucca, the care of which in such a situation is sometimes complicated by painful addiction to a new place of residence. When transferring a bush, it is important to try to preserve the entire root system of the plant, preventing it from drying out. To do this, when transplanting, use any means to moderately moisturize the roots of dug plants.

The transplanted specimens do not feed for about a month, and the rest of the yucca in the garden must be fertilized in the spring and then in the summer, before flowering and after the inflorescences wilted.

At 3-4 years old, yucca bloom for the first time, and the racemose inflorescence retains its decorative effect for about a month. Feeding with complex formulations with a predominance of nitrogen will help to maintain the strength of the plant. Fertilization is stopped a month before the onset of autumn coolness. This will allow the yucca to prepare for winter and survive the cold weather successfully.


Hibiscus care

When growing hibiscus, gardening and reproduction are important steps that ensure the decorative effect of your site. Without proper care, the plant will not bloom. And with the help of reproduction, you can decorate new corners of the garden with bright inflorescences.

The buds of the "flower of love" appear only on young shoots, so pruning is a necessary procedure for it.... It is recommended to carry it out in early spring, before the juices begin to move. A young growth is left in the crown, old and dry branches are cut out. Last year's shoots are shortened by ¼ of the length. Pruning stimulates the active growth of new branches. At the same time, the bush is given the desired shape. In autumn, after flowering is complete, the plant is pruned again.

It is better to water hibiscus with soft water - rain or settled river is suitable... Watering should be moderate, with short-term drying of the topsoil. In hot weather, you can water the hibiscus daily. If the flowers and buds begin to fall off, then the plant is experiencing a moisture deficit. Hibiscus flowers by themselves are short-lived and only live for one day. To replace the wilted flower, the next one immediately blooms. It is useful to periodically spray the leaves, this will wash away the dust and prevent the attack of the spider mite. Spraying the leaves with tobacco infusion prevents the invasion of aphids.

Hibiscus must be prepared for wintering in a timely manner.... The plant is watered abundantly and the topsoil is allowed to dry. After that, the bush is huddled high with a mixture of earth and sand. With the onset of frost, the base of the plant is covered with dry foliage or sawdust to a height of 15 cm. The branches are bent to the ground and covered with several layers of non-woven material. A frame is erected on top, on which spruce branches are thrown. With such a shelter, the plant is not afraid of the most severe frosts. If your region has not very cold winters, it is enough to insulate only the roots.


Seed propagation, growing seedlings

For open ground, seedlings of Coleus are prepared in advance. Seeds are sown in containers with nutrient soil in February (in the southern regions), or in March - in other regions of the temperate zone. Weeks before the intended landing in open ground.

Coleus seeds are small, so they are poured onto the soil surface through a fine mesh sieve and mulched with sand. Containers with crops should be covered with foil or glass to reduce moisture evaporation and raise the average temperature.

At room temperature (+22 - 25 ° C) seedlings appear in 3 weeks from the moment of sowing. The soil must be moist all the time before germination!

When Coleus seedlings form several true leaves, they dive into separate cups or peat pots with fertile soil (a mixture of sand, peat, turf and leafy soil in equal proportions). Peat pots allow you to avoid reloading when planting in open ground.

Seedling care is usual - watering and feeding, maintaining optimal temperature and lighting conditions. Insufficient lighting deprives young Coleus of their decorative qualities, just as the sun scorching from a window can burn delicate foliage.


Watch the video: Winter Care of the Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis: Garden Savvy