Small architecture of the garden: garden gazebos, pergolas, grottoes, trellises
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The style of the garden is most often determined by the layout of the house and plot.
It is good if both the house and the garden were designed at the same time. And what if you bought a ready-made cottage and the plot with it does not at all correspond to your idea of beauty and harmony? Elements of landscape architecture can provide significant help here: small architectural forms, fountains, bridges, paths, cute garden surprises that can transform any, even the most seemingly hopeless space.
The leading role in the reformation of the garden, in bringing buildings and green spaces "to a common denominator" belongs, of course, to small architectural forms. Such elements are called small because they are much inferior in size to the main building of the site - the house.
The very concept "small architectural form" very extensible and controversial. In practice, this term denotes anything, or, more specifically, everything that is on the site, but at the same time does not grow. In principle, an alpine slide, a cascade, a fountain, a sundial, a group of boulders and even a path can be considered a small form. Their function is to create accents where necessary, to organize the space.
Almost always, small forms reflect the character and worldview of the owner. Therefore, before bringing the finishing touches to the garden, you should familiarize yourself with the variety of all possible elements of garden decor.
"Give me some support"
No matter what they tell us about the fashionable pragmatism today, we all perceive nature at the level of emotions. However, a garden plot is not a park or a piece of forest, here you should find a balance between useful buildings (garage, shed, greenhouse), plants for your table and the aesthetic component of the garden - flowers and decorative trees. In any garden, support structures for vertical landscaping are the ideal addition to tilt the overall balance in favor of the aesthetic moment. Climbing plants divide the space around the house in the way that harmony requires: original "green rooms" and passages, completely entwined with leaves and flowers of plants, provide not only shade and coolness, but also cover not particularly decorative places of the garden area. Let's take a closer look at the varieties of small architectural forms that support these plants.
Pergolas and arches - similar structures, representing arcuate curved supports or, in some way, gazebos without a roof. The origin of pergolas is very prosaic: their ancestors were supports for vines. In the classic version, they are made of metal, which, in addition to decorativeness, guarantees you no hassle of replacing them for a long period of time. In addition, wooden arches are quite common, more appropriate in country-style and naturegarden gardens. Recently, the production of plastic pergolas and arches has been launched. They are already on sale.
The arch is associated with the entrance to some kind of space, therefore its functional task is to indicate the transition from one zone to another. Putting an arch or pergola in the middle of the lawn would be a big mistake.
The collection of several arched canopies over the garden path is called bersot - an almost indispensable option for regular gardens and parks. This is a kind of tunnel of identical trees or climbing plants planted in two rows. When used to create berso trees (birch, linden, maple, mountain ash, pear, apple), supports as a functional structure are needed only at the initial stages. Subsequently, after a few years, the skeletal branches of the trees play the role of a frame, and the supports turn into a purely decorative element.
A similar element of garden design - trellis or trellis... This is a small garden structure in the form of an oblique lattice. It can be positioned freely to view from all sides, or lean against a wall or fence.
Free-standing trellises are good for annual vines - sweet peas, morning glories, ornamental beans, as well as for perennials removed from supports for the winter - for example, roses and clematis. The trellis takes up a minimum of space and is often used along paths, as well as to divide the garden into small "green rooms".
Structures closely related to trellis - trellis (flat, structures similar to sections of fences). They are usually placed against a fence or wall of a house when they want to hide them behind a green curtain.
Alcove on the garden plot during the Russian Art Nouveau was a symbol of solitude, heartfelt conversations and secret dates. Nothing prevents you today from starting such a romantic gazebo, placing it in a far corner, preferably north, west or north-west, according to the canons of feng shui teachings.
But experience shows that the owners often exaggerate their desire for solitude, and such structures are visited only a few times a year. It is at least unreasonable to make them according to an exclusive project, to decorate with openwork ligature of metal lace, then to hide them in a corner.
Most of the modern gazebos are of the "secular" category, designed for receiving guests or home dinners and tea parties. They should be placed closer to home, so that it is more convenient to set the table, or in a recreation area, or next to a playground - remember how much joy in childhood was given by the opportunity to climb into some unusual "house".
The gazebos fit into any style of garden, and the size and design are determined by the overall dimensions of the site. To maintain proportions in a small area, it is better to build a small gazebo, from four, six or eight arches. In the presence of large areas, you can afford a more spacious gazebo, with wooden floors, from which, by the way, it is much warmer on a summer evening or in rainy weather.
If your gazebo is made of metal, and you intend to green it, then you should remember about the high thermal conductivity of metal products, then in our climate it can lead to frostbite of plants in winter. By the way, the same applies to pergolas.
Of the climbing garden vines, it is best to use girlish grapes, which tend to recover from any frost. Clematis are ideal in this sense - their greens are delicate, light, which, by the way, is approved by the teachings of feng shui, since it does not interfere with the correct circulation of energy flows. In addition, clematis are pruned for the winter, and they are not afraid of the frightening thermal conductivity of metal arbors.
Sculptures, flowerpots, fountains - accent structures. Their tasks are to draw attention to themselves, bring the gaze to an important object, emphasize the splendor, etc. Such elements are not hidden, they are exposed and in every possible way emphasize their beauty.
As for garden sculpture, today there is a huge selection in all centers of goods for gardeners. True, almost all of them are designed for the classic style of the garden. Fans of avant-garde gardens in this respect were much less fortunate. Anyone who wants exclusivity should turn to sculptural workshops, where for you, according to your own sketch, the masters will create any work. The same can be said for potters and blacksmiths.
Building a fountain can be a daunting task if your site has high groundwater levels. If this is not the case, then you can even make a small fountain with your own hands.
Grotto - a unique garden form capable of single-handedly creating a romantic mood among visitors. Now the task of erecting grottoes has become much easier, since now they can be made of artificial stone, a material several times lighter than natural stone. They are placed in secluded corners, in the shade of bushes and trees, and a garden bench is often placed next to it - one of the most popular small architectural forms for a garden.
Diversity garden benches so large that it can serve as a topic for a separate article. It is a special pleasure for gardeners to install "secret" benches hidden behind a hedge, which gives the effect of surprise on the one hand, and brings a certain element of mystery on the other.
Placing small architectural forms on your site, you should, as usual, remember about harmony, not get too carried away with certain other elements. "The best is the enemy of the good" - remember this always, because by the garden you have created I will judge you as a person ...
N. Ivanova, biologist