Horticulture fruit and vegetable production

Horticulture fruit and vegetable production

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Horticulture fruit and vegetable production is increasingly being conducted in an arid environment. Therefore, water resource management is critical for fruit production, and water-use efficiency is one of the most important indicators in the management of water use in arid agriculture. A recent development in fruit production is integrated pest management that aims to ensure the stability of the fruit production environment and productivity through the use of chemical pesticides and also the biological pest control method. In this context, an effective and feasible means of achieving sustainable use of water resources is the use of natural substances to decrease the amount of chemical pesticides applied and reduce environmental damage. The beneficial effects of various plant extracts on the biological control of insect pests have been investigated. There are a few studies on the effects of plant extracts on insect pest management in the agricultural field.

In Korea, the use of plant extracts for the control of phytophagous insects has been well known. In addition to plants, fungi and the use of plant materials have been studied and applied in biological pest control. These studies have been active for approximately a hundred years and continue to be actively studied. Recently, some studies have focused on the use of essential oils for insect control and on the development of alternative pest control methods based on the plant extracts [[@B1-ijerph-17-01395],[@B2-ijerph-17-01395]]. Moreover, there have been many studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of extracts from plants or fungi in biological pest control [[@B3-ijerph-17-01395],[@B4-ijerph-17-01395],[@B5-ijerph-17-01395],[@B6-ijerph-17-01395],[@B7-ijerph-17-01395],[@B8-ijerph-17-01395],[@B9-ijerph-17-01395]].

In addition to their use in agriculture, plant extracts and their constituents can be considered for pest control in other fields, such as environment and health. Since the late 1990s, the use of plant extracts has been studied in the health industry. Many researchers have focused on the use of plant extracts for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of herbal medicines, especially extracts of natural origin, as a natural alternative to traditional pharmaceutical treatments, was considered to be an effective method. Recently, various studies have been conducted to demonstrate the antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts [[@B10-ijerph-17-01395],[@B11-ijerph-17-01395],[@B12-ijerph-17-01395]]. Plant extracts have also been used as nutraceuticals, such as functional foods or food additives, and many scientific studies have demonstrated that plant extracts can be used as an additive to food to improve their physiological functions [[@B13-ijerph-17-01395],[@B14-ijerph-17-01395]].

The use of *F. angustifolia* in traditional medicine is limited because it is a member of the pea family, and its flowers are difficult to cultivate. Therefore, *F. angustifolia* has never been systematically studied and has been used only in traditional medicine in many countries [[@B2-ijerph-17-01395],[@B15-ijerph-17-01395]]. In addition, *F. angustifolia* extract was not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for food application because of its low extraction rate and the presence of anti-nutrients, such as tannins. The research on this issue has been limited to the development of food-grade extraction methods [[@B2-ijerph-17-01395],[@B3-ijerph-17-01395]]. In this study, the extraction methods of *F. angustifolia* were developed and applied to obtain high-purity water-soluble extracts, which allowed us to identify the bioactive compounds of the extract. The composition of the *F. angustifolia* extract was analyzed using liquid chromatography, and the analysis of the extracts by high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed to identify the active compounds. According to the LC/MS analysis, three main compounds of the *F. angustifolia* extract were identified as luteolin-7-*O*-glucoside, apigenin-7-*O*-glucoside, and isoorientin-7-*O*-glucoside. Based on the literature review, these compounds were reported to have strong anti-inflammatory activity and anti-oxidative effects [[@B16-ijerph-17-01395],[@B17-ijerph-17-01395]].

*In vitro* cell-based experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the extract on the expression of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, and COX-2), and anti-oxidative stress-related biomarkers (Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1) in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage model. The results showed that the extract suppressed LPS-induced expressions of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory (COX-2) biomarkers, and induced the expressions of antioxidant enzymes (Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1) in a concentration-dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract might be partly associated with the bioactive compounds in *S. baicalensis* in particular, the chrysin in the isoorientin/baicalein group, which was found to be the main anti-inflammatory component of *S. baicalensis*. The results are in agreement with previous studies showing that baicalin and baicalein inhibited LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) and PGE2, and reduced LPS-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 macrophages and human keratinocytes [[@B18-ijerph-17-01395],[@B19-ijerph-17-01395],[@B20-ijerph-17-01395]]. It is noteworthy that a study indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of *S. baicalensis* was mediated by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators and transcriptional activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway [[@B35-ijerph-17-01395]]. Moreover, chrysin from *S. baicalensis* showed significant anti-inflammatory activity by inducing nuclear translocation of Nrf2, inhibiting Nrf2 phosphorylation, and subsequently activating the expression of phase II enzymes in human colon cancer cell lines [[@B36-ijerph-17-01395]]. Chlorogenic acid from *S. baicalensis* displayed inhibitory activity against TNF-α-induced NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [[@B37-ijerph-17-01395]].

As seen in [Figure 2](#ijerph-17-01395-f002){ref-type="fig"}, *S. baicalensis* extract,