Fruit tree representative species

Fruit tree representative species

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Google Map for Land Use Rights. This species contains many outstanding characteristics such as fragrant, sweet, crunchy and crimson ripe fruits coated with white powder, and the fruits are very eye-catching. Therefore, Ta Van plum is considered as a unique quality product of the region. In March every year, when the plum blossoms bloom, the highland area is coated with a vast white cover, attracting visitors, especially the photographers.

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  • One tree, 10 different fruits: Gardener claims world record for rare feat
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Yadira Beatriz Vargas-Tierras 1. Fernando Casanoves 4. Elias de Melo Virginio-Filho 5. La Joya de los Sachas, Ecuador. Email: yadira. Ibarra, Ecuador. Email: jkprado utn. Palora, Ecuador. Email: jose. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Email: eliasdem catie. Email: casanoves catie. Tumbaco, Ecuador. Email: william. Fruit crops in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon region are part of the crop diversity found in a production system called " chakra " that is known as a traditional and diverse agroforestry system.

The information was obtained through targeted surveys and direct observations in the field. The results indicated that in the two provinces, producers establish from 1 to 19 fruit crop species in their plots, being the farms of less than 10 hectares the most diverse.

In most farms, the predominant fruit crops in these production systems are avocado Persea americana , citrus Citrus spp. These crops are associated with cacao, coffee, monocultures, silvopastoral systems, or dispersed outside these systems.

On the other hand, other species have been introduced and are considered as fruit crops with market potential, namely, fig Ficus carica , grapefruit Citrus x paradisi , passion fruit Passiflora edulis and star gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus.

Fruit crop production is mainly destined for self-consumption and animal feed; however, the surplus is sold to generate an economic income. Keywords: biodiversity; Coffea canephora; Ecuadorian Amazon; silvopastoral systems; Theobroma cacao. In the tropics, the Amazonian forests are the largest and most diverse Pitman et al. Most of their soils show an infertility complex so they form fragile ecosystems, prone to degradation in the short term when the natural forest is replaced by unsustainable production systems Valarezo,Biodiversity in the natural ecosystems of the Amazon region has a high potential for sustainable development, when different forest resources and crops used and maintained by producers are integrated.

In this region, fruit trees are found in a traditional and diverse agroforestry and production system called chakra. Fruit trees are part of its biodiversity and are considered promising for their great nutritional potential, having suitable features to become sustainable crops, since they can be used in ecosystems conservation and restoration.

It is important to mention that several of fruit crops that were characterized are currently being exported within the subsector "Non-traditional fruits and other fruit trees", as processed fruits.

On the other hand, there are fruit trees that have an enormous potential as achotillo or rambutan Nephelium lappaceum L. Additionally, we also find soursop Annona muricata L. Their potential lies in their antioxidant capacity Clement et al. For this reason, Programa de Fruticultura del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias [Fruit Production Program of the National Institute of Agricultural Research] Iniap has identified the need to establish the potential fruit crops have in the northern region of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

In , the collection of Amazonian and exotic fruit trees was established as part of the germplasm maintained by Iniap in the province of Orellana, which covers an approximate area of 6 hectares, with ca. In the study area, 37 farms were selected due to having research and validation plots with cacao trees Theobroma cacao L. The farms chosen had at least one fruit tree as a component of their production systems, as mono-cultures or in some type of association with cacao, coffee or pastures Poaceae.

Another selection criterion was the interest of farmers in learning new production technologies for fruit trees and associated crops figure 1. Source: Elaborated by the authors. Data collection was carried out through structured surveys directed towards producers, obtaining information regarding the size of the farm, fruit tree associations with other crops, fruit trees diversity, age of the crops, agronomic management systems, yield and destination of production commercialization.

To define the size of the farm, how it should be classified, and the size of the agricultural production units APU , the Nieto and Caicedo classification system was used, i. The agrobiodiversity index ADI for fruit species was established according to the methodology proposed by Gravina and Leyva and Leyva and Lores , which establishes a division by groups to calculate each subscript, as follows.

An agroecosystem is considered efficient or sustainable when the ADI value is higher than 0. Furthermore, the association of fruit trees with other crops was also observed, such as cacao, coffee, pastures, dispersed, mixed with cacao and coffee, and pastures.

Regarding the definition of fruit tree management, questions were asked regarding the type of agronomic management, the performance of activities such as weeding, pruning, application of manure and fertilizers, phytosanitary controls and thinning.

On the other hand, the questions about the destination of the production were classified as for self-consumption, for animal feed, losses in the field not harvested , lack of tree production, sale on farm or intermediaries on farm, or transportation for market sale. Results were analyzed through descriptive statistics, showing means and standard error by species, farm and province. In turn, categorical data were analyzed through contingency tables chisquare statistic, maximum likelihood and multivariate analysis using multiple correspondences.

All these analyzes were carried out using the statistical package InfoStat, version Di Rienzo et al. With regards to the classification and size of the APUs, Nieto and Caicedo indicate that in the Ecuadorian Amazon the size has been categorized according to different farm surface ranges. Farms with extensions between 51 and ha are those that register a lower percentage in both provinces, i.

No fruit producers were found with extensions larger than ha. Similarly, Bravo et al. Results show that in the province of Orellana, farms of less than 10 ha and from 51 to ha have, on average, the highest fruit species diversity.

It should be noted that in those farms of less than 10 ha, between 8 and 19 species of fruit trees have been established, among which the most common are avocado Persea americana Mill. On the other hand, this differs from what was registered in the farms from 51 to ha, in which the plots show a diversity between 12 and 16 species per farm, and the most frequent fruit trees are cherimoya, coconut, lemon, orange Citrus x sinensis [L. In those with extensions of 11 to 50 ha, we found the lowest average number of fruit species, i.

In farms of less than 10 ha, between 8 and 10 species of fruit trees are observed, and orange is the most frequent species cultivated. In category two, producers have in their plots, from 1 to 14 species, and in this case, the most common crops were avocado and orange.

Our study indicates that the northern region of the Amazon shows a high diversity of fruit trees. Results showed that there are 41 species in the farms selected the same ones that are associated to different types of production systems.

The fruit species that were found in smaller numbers and frequency come from different altitudinal levels, such as star gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus [L.

In the case of citrus fruits, these have been introduced because they are considered agricultural products with a huge market potential Rogg,Similarly, Ruiz points out that citrus fruits are present in most of the farms in the Amazon region.

These have been prioritized by Iniap due to their excellent adaptation and domestication conditions, as well as their nutritional attributes and economic potential. Conversely, naranjilla is a fruit that stands out due to its history and impact. Initially, it was introduced in the provinces of Pastaza and Morona Santiago, and has been expanding in Napo and Orellana.

In the seventies and eighties it was established in monocultures, which in a short time caused high incidence of pests, causing an excessive use of pesticides and unsustainable production, which generated the need to focus the production systems towards a sustainable trend Ruiz,In turn, pitahaya has become an economically important crop, since its fruit is widely marketed nationally and internationally.

The highest number of fruit species are found in cacao or coffee crops, followed by fruit trees scattered on the farm. Among the species located dispersed in the production systems and outside of these, we find Annona spp.

On the contrary, in the production systems in which monocultures are maintained, no type of fruit tree is found inside or outside the plots; meanwhile, in livestock production systems, guava is the most abundant species in pastures figure 2. The agrobiodiversity index showed a value of 0. In the specific analysis, we observed that the IFER showed the most favorable situation, by obtaining the closest value to achieve sustainability; furthermore, and on the other hand, deficiencies were observed in the IAVA and ICOM subscripts due to their low values.

The IFER showed that there is a good fruit species diversity for human consumption. However, producers establish their fruit trees in their production systems without taking into account the number of species or diversity. The indices obtained show the need to increase the agricultural biodiversity of fruit trees in an equitable way, based on classification groups, so that the agroecosystem is integral, functional and balanced, from an agricultural, ecological, economic and sociocultural point of view.

Fruit tree species distributed outside the systems and those that are located as monocultures are exempt from management figure 3. The most frequent activities are weeding, pruning, application of manure and fertilizers, phytosanitary control and thinning. Ruiz indicates that in the Amazon region, fruit trees are cultivated without carrying out cultural practices, usually on abandoned pastures or degraded areas.

This does not agree with our results, because, in order to increase their production, producers are implementing some type of management practice in at least one fruit in their farm. It should be noted that, in recent years, institutions have shown interest in improving production, so research was carried out on the propagation, management, harvest and postharvest of certain Amazonian fruit trees.

In the northern area of the Amazon, there is a high variation in the age of fruit species. In the species assessed, we found that the fruits achotillo, badea, carambola, coconut, jackfruit, passion fruit, pineapple and pitahaya are the species with the youngest individuals, i. Producers are introducing these types of fruit trees as they have a greater demand at the national and international levels for their larger size and flavor.

Passion fruit, pineapple and pitahaya are exported within the subsector of "non-traditional fruits" to countries such as Germany, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, United States of America and Russia, among others Ruiz,Regarding countries that import these fruits, the "green" trend consumers show means that they look for products with sustainable production that do not come from monocultures.

As indicated above, in the Amazon there is a high percentage of crops in association with other crops or production systems, that is to say that they comply with the aforementioned trend. In the case of coconut, both the cultivated areas and the investment in the acquisition of machinery and technological equipment should be increased, so that all fruit components can be exploited to the maximum for export purposes, since currently only their juice is used.

Other fruit trees that were found in production systems in association with cacao or coffee and that showed low yields were avocado, peach palm, guaba, papaya and zapote. In addition to the above mentioned, there are producers who introduce and plant materials from areas outside the study area, which are not suitable for cultivation in the Amazon region. Conversely, in Orellana we found that a single producer sells and delivers his fruit to intermediaries on farm.

Gonzales and Ruiz indicate that in the farms of the Amazon, the production of fruit trees is not only destined for food security as a self-consumption product, but also surpluses are used for fresh sale. On their farms, producers harvest fruit trees and sell them to intermediaries, or sells them in the markets of nearby cities.

That is, they have two options: to sell their fruits directly to the consumer or to intermediaries. The second option is the most common, receiving lower benefits, which has become an unprofitable activity. Gonzales states that it is possible that fruit sale in the Amazon is limited by the precarious distribution of profits, since families face markets that do not compensate the high transportation cost value.

In the northern Amazon region, there are approximately 41 fruit tree species, which farmers have established in their plots due to the need to diversify their production and increase their income. A minimum percentage of producers commercialize fruit to obtain an additional economic income. Those that are mainly commercialized are peach palm, coconut, guaba, orange, papaya, pineapple and zapote. Likewise, we thank the revisers who helped us improve the quality of this manuscript.

Fruit tree

We offer espalier trees with 1, 2, or 3 pre-trained tiers, usually in both 'Small' and 'Large' sizes. Only apples and pears are suitable for being trained as espaliers. Espaliers look impressive when planted singly or several together, but we recommend you do not mix apples and pears together as their sizes may differ. Sizes refer to how big the trees will get in the longer term. The size as supplied is not a good indicator of the mature size. A small espalier apple tree, ideal for smaller fence panels. It has 2 tiers of arms already formed at approximately 50cm spacing, and a leading shoot which you can train-on to give a mature tree with 3 tiers.

There are different species of trees and some of them are cultivated for fruits. Some of the main fruit giving trees of Kerala are mentioned.

One tree, 10 different fruits: Gardener claims world record for rare feat

Yadira Beatriz Vargas-Tierras 1. Fernando Casanoves 4. Elias de Melo Virginio-Filho 5. La Joya de los Sachas, Ecuador. Email: yadira. Ibarra, Ecuador. Email: jkprado utn. Palora, Ecuador. Email: jose. Turrialba, Costa Rica.

Fruit variety identification

Helen C. Ramos Florenda B. Indigenous fruit trees play a vital role in crop diversification and agroforestry system. It is also considered as a source of food and nutrition, and contributes to the income of rural people. However, indigenous fruit trees face deforestation and genetic erosion.

Kerala is a green state and there are a wide variety of trees and plants.

Fruit tree

This Research Topic of Frontiers in Plant Science collects 8 manuscripts, focused on fruit crops of high commercial interest, such as bayberry, blueberry, pear, grapevine, citrus, and walnut. The breadth of solutions and approaches that omics offer us today, and the applications and perspectives that are looming over a short time horizon, are illustrated with a particular focus on fruit qualitative traits, related to firmness and post-harvest Cappai et al. Moreover, the Research Topic illustrates a technological application path from whole-genome sequencing Wu et al. Figure 1. Methods and applications of Functional Genomics in fruits trees.

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JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Save For Later Print. Updated: October 18,Two of the most serious nematode problems in Pennsylvania are peach stem pitting and apple union necrosis and decline.

Protocols that complied with the FAO code of conduct for germplasm were developed following the germplasm collection of some of the major species.

A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by animals and humans — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term "fruit tree" is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere see Fruit , but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut -bearing trees, such as walnuts.

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. You can opt-out if you wish, but website functionality may be affected. More info Agree. And you don't need a big garden for that.

Recent studies have emphasized the nutritional interest of the fruits of strawberry tree Arbutus unedo L.

Make a donation. Growing your own top fruit in the garden is very rewarding and the choice is vast. The following represents only a brief guidance on what to consider and a small selection of fruit tree cultivars well suited for the garden. Always aim to obtain healthy plants from a reputable source. Most tree fruit cultivars are grafted or budded onto rootstocks. It is the rootstock that largely controls the size and vigour of the tree. The rootstock can also contribute to the disease resisting abilities of the plant.

Leaves are alternate, simple, 6—12 inches long, 3—5 inches wide, broadest above the middle; margin lacking teeth; upper surface green; lower surface pale; emitting an odor when bruised. Twigs are slender, olive-brown, often blotched, smooth, becoming rougher when older, often with a warty surface. Flowers March—May; perfect with male and female parts in same flower , dark reddish purple, solitary, drooping, about 1 inch across, appearing before the leaves and with an odor of fermenting purple grapes.

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