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Branches of science related to biology horticulture

Branches of science related to biology horticulture



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Branches of science related to biology horticulture, ecology, medicine, and general biology. These branches help in the development of the basic science. The basic science is used in medicine, agricultural, and veterinary sciences to understand the fundamental biology of an organism.

The basic science deals with the biological basis of a living organism. Understanding the basic science helps in understanding the basic biology of all living organisms. It also helps in understanding the relationship between living organisms and nature. A basic science study at college level helps students to understand the basics of the biology, which is essential in the future studies. There are different branches of the basic science, for example chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, and others. Basic science are used in all branches of science.

Contents

The basic science helps in the understanding of the life cycle of the organisms, and the interaction of different organisms with the environment. A basic science is needed to understand the biology of an organism. An organism's metabolism, the cell and its contents, the genetic code, and the relationships with the surrounding environment play an important role in understanding the basic science.

Metabolism

The metabolism of an organism is the production of nutrients from food material in an organism and its transformation of the nutrients into usable materials. The metabolism is carried out in different stages. These stages are called as the growth stages and the maintenance stages. The growth stages help in growth and development of the organism, while the maintenance stages assist in the growth and development of the organism. These stages are also called the cell division stage, the cell formation stage, and the cell differentiation stage. The basic science teaches about the different stages of an organism's metabolism. An organism may experience the growth stages many times in its life. During each growth stage, the organism grows. The nutrients obtained from food material are transformed into growth and development material, which is stored in the cells. During cell division, different cells are formed. Different cells carry out their functions and are changed according to their functions. At the cell formation stage, cells are formed and the differentiation stage of cells is reached. The basic science helps in the understanding of the life cycle of an organism.

Cell Division

During the cell division stage, cells are formed from uni-cellular organisms and eukaryotic cells (which is formed from several cells). In the uni-cellular organisms, single cells come together to form multi-cellular organisms. In the eukaryotic cells, nuclear fusion takes place and it produces two new nuclei which then divide to produce more cells. In the cell division stage, the cell produces new cells which carry out their functions. During cell division, two identical cells are produced. These are the diploid and the haploid cells. The diploid cells are very important because in many organisms the diploid cells are the cells which transmit genetic information. Differentiation is the process in which cells are formed according to their functions.

Morphogenesis

Morphogenesis is a process that takes place in the course of growth, development, differentiation and adaptation. In this process, an embryo is formed. Different parts of the embryo such as the body, the head, the tail and the extremities are formed. Development is the process in which one stage is transformed into another stage. Differentiation is the process in which one type of cells is transformed into another. Morphogenesis is the developmental process in which the form is achieved. It is a very complicated process, which involves many cell division, growth and differentiation processes. The most famous theory of morphogenesis is the theory of genetic development.

Growth

Growth is the process by which an organism increases in size. The food material, consumed by an organism, is converted into other things which helps in growth.

Cell Cycle

A cell cycle is a series of events which takes place in a cell. During the cell cycle, each stage of the cell cycle takes a specified amount of time. Each of these stages of the cell cycle is followed by a resting stage, in which the cell is prepared for the next step of the cycle. The cell cycle is very important because it is the basis of all biological processes. The cell cycle is controlled by different genes, which are usually called cell cycle genes. A gene, which helps in the growth and division of cells, is called a growth promoting gene. A gene, which stops the growth and division of the cells, is called a growth inhibiting gene. The function of a gene is controlled by its particular sequence and its expression. The activity of the gene is usually controlled by a regulatory mechanism.

Growth factors

Growth factors are protein molecules, which are secreted by cells and which stimulate the growth of the cells which are affected by them. They are the main components of the extracellular matrix and they are the ones which regulate the growth of the cells. They are involved in both embryonic development and tissue repair and regeneration. There are many types of growth factors, but fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are the most studied.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics is a newly-established research area which explains the study of heritable changes in the genome which are not associated with any change in the genetic code. All these changes are reversible and usually they help in the expression of genes. In the absence of the genes, the epigenetic changes are called epimutations. During embryonic development, these changes determine the future state of an individual. The DNA sequence of the genome of an individual is influenced by these epigenetic factors and is often heritable.

Reproductive cells

Reproductive cells are cells of different types. The cells of the male reproductive system have three basic functions – Spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and ejaculation. The gametes are produced in the testes and mature in the epididymis. Some of the sperm cells are generated by the Sertoli cells of the testes and they mature in the epididymis.

The cells of the female reproductive system are those of the oviducts, uterus, ova and the inner fallopian tubes. The oviducts secrete the ova, which in turn reach the uterus and the inner fallopian tubes to be fertilized. The uterus helps in producing the blastocyst and holds it for about nine months.

Treatments for infertility

Most of the treatments for infertility are directed towards improving the functions of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the endometrium. Since the ovaries are the main source of the female gametes, it is possible to improve their functions to make it possible to conceive. Infertility treatments which are effective in improving the ovaries and the fallopian tubes include:

Ovulation induction – a technique that employs gonadotropins like menopur and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists like leuprolide and degarelix to stimulate the ovaries to produce follicles and make them mature.

Ovulation induction is recommended for women with polycystic ovaries or anovulation and women who have received high doses of radiation for cancer treatment in the pelvic area.

In vitro fertilization – an infertility treatment which involves the collection of a woman's eggs, fertilization of the eggs outside of the body, and later their implantation into the uterus to be carried to term.

IUI – intrauterine insemination – is an assisted reproductive technique in which the man's semen is placed in the woman's uterus through the woman's vagina after intercourse. The semen can be inserted into the uterus with a special cat


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