Genus prunus fruit trees

Genus prunus fruit trees

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Genus prunus fruit trees {#Sec1}


Apricot (*Prunus armeniaca* L.) and cherry (*Prunus serotina* Ehrh.) are very important fruit trees in the Mediterranean region. Cherry trees are planted on about 80% of European olive groves (Cremone et al. [@CR7], Vizzarri et al. [@CR44]). In the United States, apricot and cherry species are in a status of conservation concern because of the drought and insect diseases (Sloan [@CR39]).

*Prunus* species are herbaceous perennial trees and woody shrubs that are natives to temperate regions of Eurasia and Africa. Most of *Prunus* species belong to the family Rosaceae and subfamily Amygdaloideae, but a few belong to the subfamilies Tormicoideae, Ceraceous, and Anthyllideae (Kingston and Arn [@CR18]). The genus *Prunus* includes about 150 species and comprises many cultivated fruit species (Hoffmann [@CR13]). The genus contains about 7--10 genera, and these are usually defined according to their reproductive traits (Hoffmann [@CR13]).

Sexual reproduction is the most significant method for propagation and genetic variability of *Prunus* species and fruit trees. After pollination, flowers develop into fruit, which is composed of fleshy sepals, edible berries, and seeds (Alvarez [@CR1]). Apricot and cherry are self-incompatible, or actinomorphic, and are dioecious. Anthers and stigmas are commonly polyhedral in shape (Sampson and Bromley [@CR32]). Ovules are symmetrical and have two ovular cells that are fused to form a single globular meristematic cell that develops into a tri-nucleated ovule that is enclosed by the integuments (Fig. ,[1](#Fig1){ref-type="fig"}). Pollination is accomplished by external and internal sperm entry into the stigmatic cavity. This mechanism allows for cross-pollination between plants within the same orchard (Mazourek and Nowacki [@CR23]). Fertilization occurs during ovule development, and pollen tube growth is guided by pollination and fertilization (Enari [@CR10], Majewska and Tamás [@CR22]). Fruits are composed of fleshy sepals, aromatic berries, and seeds (Alvarez [@CR1]).Fig. ,1**a** Prune flower and its pollination, **b** Prune flower and its pollination, **c** Prune fruit and its pollination

Flower color {#Sec2}


Gala and Himalayan apricot cultivars display white flowers and pink fruits, whereas apricot cultivars such as 'Baldwin' and 'Kinsey' have red flowers and white fruits (Alvarez [@CR1], González et al. [@CR12]). Cherry trees typically have pink flowers. In apricot and cherry species, flowers are hermaphroditic and self-pollinating. The dominant yellow carpel color is due to anthocyanin accumulation in the walls of the reproductive tissues.

Floral biology {#Sec3}


Morphological characters of a *Prunus* flower depend on their function. Flowers are mostly morphologically identical in all *Prunus* species, such as an adpressed involucre, sepals, petals, stamens, and styles (Chandler et al. [@CR5], Izatt and Sheppard [@CR14]). The labellum is the third part of the flower, and it is important for identifying the *Prunus* species (Chandler et al. [@CR5]). The dorsal sepal has a clear dorsal slit, whereas the lateral sepals are entire. Four or five petals can be distinguished. The stamens are generally two in number and are commonly 3, 4, or 5 ,cm long, in addition to the style. These appendages are appendages of male flowers and have pistils. The stigma is a projection that attracts pollen.

Like other plants, *Prunus* flowers are sessile, and it is important to note the location of the stamens, style, and stigma in relation to the developing fruits. Petals, sepals, and carpel margins are the most common floral parts and can be used to distinguish among various *Prunus* species (Sorhánez-González et al. [@CR40]). Carpel edges are the most characteristic floral parts of *Prunus* species and can be used to distinguish species (Vietzke [@CR43]). As fruits develop, the petal becomes connate with the sepals or narrows into a filament. The color and shape of fruits are also important traits for identification of *Prunus* species.

Sensory and floral scent in *Prunus* {#Sec4}


*Prunus* flowers have two most important roles: the first is to attract pollinators (Vacheron et al. [@CR42]), and the second is to attract the pollinators with the floral scent.

Sensory roles {#Sec5}


Ants (Beier et al. [@CR2]) and honeybees (Wharton and DePaul [@CR46]) are the most important pollinators for several fruit tree species. Male and female honeybees perform the main function of pollination, which is to collect the nectar and take pollen from the stigmas to their ovaries and ventral pollen sacs (Fig. ,[1](#Fig1){ref-type="fig"}) (Clemons and DePaul [@CR6]). The other bees found to pollinate these plants include the bumblebees and the sweat

Watch the video: 19 Flowering, Fruiting Trees And Shrubs From The Prunus Genus