Landscape ecology the effect of pattern on process

Landscape ecology the effect of pattern on process

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The latitudinal and altitudinal distribution of vegetative zones was described by Von Humboldt , whose work provided a major impetus to studies of the geographic distribution of plants and animalsThroughout the nineteenth century, botanists and zoologists described the spatial distributions of various taxa, particularly as they related to macroclimatic factors such as temperature and precipitation e. The emerging view was that strong interdependencies among climate, biota, and soil lead to long-term stability of the landscape in the absence of climatic changesThe early biogeographical studies also influenced Clements' theory of successional dynamics, in which a stable endpoint, the climax vegetation, was determined by macroclimate over a broad region 14,Clements stressed temporal dynamics but did not emphasize spatial patterning.

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  • Sensitivity of GIS patterns to data resolution: a case study of forest fragmentation in New Zealand
  • Principles of Landscape Ecology
  • Metrics and Models for Quantifying Ecological Resilience at Landscape Scales
  • Operationalizing the integrated landscape approach in practice
  • Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: A short introduction to landscape Ecology, from the origins to recent developments

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Literature Cited. Brennan, J. Bender, T. Contreras, and L. Focal patch landscape studies for wildlife management: Optimizing sampling effort across scales. Pages in: J. Liu and W. Taylor eds. Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management. Fahrig, L. Relative importance of spatial and temporal scales in a patchy environment. Theoretical Population BiologyWhen does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival?

Ecological ModellingEffects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics. Findlay, C. Anthropogenic correlates of species richness in southeastern Ontario wetlands. Conservation BiologyFlather, C. King, A. Hierarchy theory and the landscape. Wiens and M. Moss eds. Issues in Landscape Ecology. McGarigal, K. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects.

Ecological ApplicationsRelationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon coast range. Ecological MonographsPope, S. Fahrig and H. Landscape complementation and metapopulation effects on leopard frog populations. EcologyTrzcinski, M. Fahrig and G. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds.

Ecological Applications 9:Turner, M. Annual Review of Ecology and SystematicsWhat Is Landscape Ecology? What is Landscape Ecology? What is Landscape Structure? What is a Landscape-Scale Study?

Example 1. Individual-scale Study Example 2. When is a Landscape Perspective Not Necessary? Although the definition of landscape ecology has been dealt with extensively some would say ad nauseam in the landscape ecological literature, there remains confusion among other ecologists as to exactly what landscape ecology is and, particularly, what its unique contribution is to ecology as a whole.

Ecology is the study of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment RicklefsThe goal of ecological research is to understand how the environment, including biotic and abiotic patterns and processes, affects the abundance and distribution of organisms Figure 1. This includes indirect effects such as the effect of an abiotic process e. Landscape ecology, a subdiscipline of ecology, is the study of how landscape structure affects the abundance and distribution of organisms Figure 2.

Landscape ecology has also been defined as the study of the effect of pattern on process Turner , where "pattern" here refers specifically to landscape structure.

The full definition of landscape ecology is then: the study of how landscape structure affects the processes that determine the abundance and distribution of organisms. Again, this includes indirect effects such as the effect of a biotic process e.

The above definition begs the question, "what is landscape structure or pattern? Spatial heterogeneity has two components: the amounts of different possible entities e. In landscape ecology these have been labeled landscape "composition" and "configuration" respectively.

The amount of forest or wetland, the length of forest edge, or the density or roads are aspects of landscape composition. The juxtaposition of different landscape elements, and measures of habitat fragmentation per se independent of habitat amount are aspects of landscape configuration McGarigal and McCombThis imposes a fundamentally different design on a landscape-scale study than on a traditional ecological study.

Each data point in a landscape-scale study is a single landscape. The entire study is comprised of several non-overlapping landscapes having different structures Figure 3. A landscape-scale study therefore has the following attributes: i individual data points in the study represent individual landscapes, i.

This typically depends on the scale at which the organism s in question move about on the landscape, or the typical scale of the process of interest. Note that the landscape is not a level of biological organization KingIn fact, a landscape-scale study can be conducted at the individual, population, community, or ecosystem level of biological organization.

In the following I provide two hypothetical examples of landscape-scale studies; the first is at the individual level and the second is at the population level. Individual-scale Study Consider a researcher who is interested in identifying the factors that determine fledging success rate of a particular species of bird. The usual approach to this would be to locate a number of nests and their associated territories. For each nest, response variables measured might be the number of young fledged or proportion of eggs taken by predators, and the predictor variables might be availability of food in the territory, or density of predators in the territory.

To include a landscape perspective in this study, the researcher would determine whether the landscape context of a territory, i. This will require a completely different study design. First the researcher must determine a reasonable maximum size for individual landscapes. This is done by asking at what scale s he expects no effect of landscape structure on the response variables.

This will generally depend on movement scales of the organisms in the study. For example, if the predator has a daily movement range of 3 km then each landscape should be at least 3 km in radius. The researcher must then locate individual territories that are spaced far enough apart such that non-overlapping landscapes of this size can be delineated around them.

Predictor variables in the study will then include both the original predictor variables local availability of food, local density of predators , and new predictor variables that describe the structure of the landscape surrounding each territory. These variables might include compositional variables e. Optimally, the landscape structural variables should be measured at several different scales to determine the size of landscape unit that has the greatest effect on the response variables.

Example 2. The fact that multiple ponds are studied does not render this a landscape-scale study Figure 3A. In a landscape-scale study, the landscape context of each pond would need to be determined.

A new set of ponds would be identified for the landscape-scale study. These ponds would need to be spaced far enough apart that non-overlapping landscapes could be delineated around them. As above, a reasonable maximum landscape size would need to be determined.

This might be based on the maximum between-population dispersal distances of the frog species in question. Again, the landscape structural variables should be measured for several different landscape sizes, to determine the size of landscape unit that has the greatest effect on the response variables e.

When is a Landscape Perspective Necessary? This leads to the somewhat frustrating Catch that, in order to determine whether a landscape perspective is necessary, one must conduct a landscape-scale study.

Practically speaking, this implies that a landscape perspective is always necessary. However, we expect there must be some, if not many, situations in which landscape structure does not have a large effect on the response variable of interest, which, in retrospect, tells us that a landscape perspective was not necessary for that problem.

Avoiding a landscape-scale study when one is not necessary will be time- and money-saving. Can we delineate some circumstances in which a landscape perspective is not necessary? Probably the most straightforward situation in which a landscape perspective is not necessary is when a sufficient proportion of variation in the response variable can be explained with local variables only. The definition of "sufficient" will of course depend on the purpose of the study.

One might argue that the rarity of landscape-scale studies as defined above in the ecological literature suggests that the proportion of variation explained by local variables is high in most cases. However, we know this is not the case.

Sensitivity of GIS patterns to data resolution: a case study of forest fragmentation in New Zealand

Since human beings began to use and shape the land, their influence on their environment has kept on growing so that currently, little or no ecosystem in the world is now considered as untouched [ 1 ]. For this reason, most landscapes are currently referred to as biocultural landscapes: generated by both natural and anthropogenic processes[ 2 ]. Human activities have worldwide consequences on landscape structure as well as ecosystem functioning [ 2 , 3 ]. This phenomenon is referred to as anthropisation, anthropogenic effect, as well as many other terms [ 4 ]. Currently, in the majority of cases it consists of urban sprawl and peri-urbanisation , deforestation and agricultural expansion [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. This induces pressures on ecosystem processes and land scarcity in terms of resources exploitation to support human life [ 2 ]. Anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern in various disciplines and policies.

Landscape ecology, which concerns spatial dynamics (including fluxes of organisms, TURNER, M.G., LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY - THE EFFECT OF PATTERN ON PROCESS.

Principles of Landscape Ecology

Landscape ecology is the study of variation within and among landscapes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. It seeks to understand the biophysical and societal causes and consequences of landscape heterogeneity. Above all, it is interdisciplinary. The conceptual and theoretical core of landscape ecology links natural and social sciences. Landscape ecology has several additional core themes:. Throughout the world, landscapes are being altered more rapidly, more extensively, and more profoundly than at any point in human history. Landscape ecology provides locally important and policy relevant information about landscape change. Landscape ecologists serve as a critical link between theory and action : We provide information about risks for decision makers, improve the applicability and accuracy of planning tools, integrate uncertainty into forecasting. Landscape ecology has contributed to sound planning with foresight: Forest management for rare species, conservation design, comprehensive land use planning, and sound land use policy are just a few of the many examples.

Metrics and Models for Quantifying Ecological Resilience at Landscape Scales

Abstract: wetlands are ecological landscapes with abundant biodiversity and serve as one of living environments of human beings, playing important ecological functions in regulating floods, purifying water quality and modulating climate, which have significant effects on climate change, economic development at the local, regional or global levels. Wetlands have been compartmentalized one type of land covers in global change conference. Land use structures and processes of wetland landscape have also been one of key research fields of landscape ecology and wetland ecology, since land use researches are important contents of landscape ecology. Generally, wetland landscape means wetland cells with spatial heterogeneity at the different scales.

Landscape ecology provides new theoretical frameworks and methodologies for understanding complex ecological phenomena at multiple scales. Studies of landscape ecology focus on understanding the dynamics of ecological patterns and processes, and highlight the integration of multiple disciplines.

Operationalizing the integrated landscape approach in practice

Taking a landscape approach is becoming a driving paradigm in the international environmental and development community. The desire to holistically balance multiple goals related to both environmental and nonenvironmental processes, for example, livelihoods and sustainable resource management, has brought the focus to the landscape scale. Therefore, a landscape approach generally tries to capture this additional complexity by viewing the landscape as a mosaic Sayer , Pfund et al. One of the current discourses around landscapes is that integrated approaches are needed to address complex landscape-scale challenges e. Some have termed such challenges wicked problems e. Wicked problems can be described as unstructured problems that are hard to characterize and define.

Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process

Skip to search form Skip to main content Skip to account menu You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI:Turner Published Geography Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Consideration of spatial dynamics in many areas of ecology has received increased attention during the past decade. For example, the role of disturbance in creating and maintaining a spatial mosaic in the rocky intertidal zone was studied. Patch size could be predicted very well by using a model based on past patterns of disturbance and on measured patterns of mussel movement and recruitment.

Article in press for the journal Landscape Ecology transferred to landscape pattern indices have interesting consequences for the use of.

Turner, M. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 20,ABSTRACT: Multi-level multi-scale resource selection models using machine learning were compared and contrasted for generating predictive maps of jaguar habitat Panthera onca in the Brazilian Pantanal. Multiple spatial scales and temporal movement levels were run within several analytical modeling frameworks for comparison.

RELATED VIDEO: Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Pattern and Process

An explicit link between the abiotic environment, the biotic components of ecosystems, and resilience to disturbance across multiple scales is needed to operationalize the concept of ecological resilience. To accomplish this, managers must be able to measure the ecological resilience of current conditions and project resilience under future scenarios of landscape change. The goal of this paper is to present metrics and describe a process for using geospatial data, landscape pattern analysis and landscape dynamic simulation modeling to evaluate ecosystem resilience at management scales. The dynamic equilibria of species abundances, community structure, and landscape patterns that are produced under a given combination of abiotic conditions, such as topography, soils, and climate, can form a foundation to define desired conditions and measure resistance and resilience.

Advances in Landscape Architecture.

In landscape ecology, spatial patterns refer to how we define the arrangement, structure, and placement of objects within any given landscape. This can include anything from patches of forestry, to river banks, to the landscape of man-made settlements like towns. Each of these environments is arranged in a pattern that can tell us a lot about its history, composition, and ecosystem. Knowledge of spatial patterns can be crucial to every area of environmental conversation and natural resource management, helping scientists to gain a clear sense of how landscapes grow and thrive, protect them from potential threats, and manage and maintain the biodiversity of unique environments. Spatial patterns can be either large or small in scale, and landscape ecologists will often progress from studying the overall patterns of environments like forests, plains, and mountain ranges to examining the more minute patterns contained within those structures, such as the gaps between trees or the ecosystem of a small patch of vegetation on a mountainside. They will also consider the temporal scale of spatial patterns, evaluating how and why the landscape has changed and evolved over time.

Spatial pattern plays an influential role in the ecological processes of ecosystems, and landscape pattern metrics computed from remotely sensed data offer a way to quantify the correlation between pattern and process. However, the resolution of geographic data affects the landscape metrics obtained from a GIS, with consequent implications for the interpretation of biological effects studied at landscape scales. Here, we studied the effect of data resolution on estimates of three metrics of forest cover commonly used in the landscape ecology literature: percent forest cover, forest edge density, and mean fractal dimension of forest patches.

Watch the video: Mathew Leibold - Linking process to pattern in community assembly in diverse metacommunities