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A botanical garden or botanic garden [nb 1] is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation , preservation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants , herb gardens , plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses , shadehouses , again with special collections such as tropical plants , alpine plants , or other exotic plants.

Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions , book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment. Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science.

In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden. The origin of modern botanical gardens is generally traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which also entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.

However, the objectives, content, and audience of today's botanic gardens more closely resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens.

The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany gradually established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems often being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds ".

With the rapid expansion of European colonies around the globe in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, and economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , near London.

Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture.

Nowadays, most botanical gardens display a mix of the themes mentioned and more; having a strong connection with the general public, there is the opportunity to provide visitors with information relating to the environmental issues being faced at the start of the 21st century, especially those relating to plant conservation and sustainability.

The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. It covers in some detail the many functions and activities generally associated with botanical gardens: [2]. A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria, laboratories, and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings.

Each botanical garden naturally develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, location, extent, available funds, and the terms of its charter. It may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, and other departments.

It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, and publication is one of its major modes of expression. This broad outline is then expanded: [2]. The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.

If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it exists for scientific ends and is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands. It is not merely a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants.

The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, which is the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. Worldwide, there are now about botanical gardens and arboreta in about countries mostly in temperate regions of which about are in Europe of which are in Russia [ citation needed ] , in North America , [6] and an increasing number in East Asia. Historically, botanical gardens exchanged plants through the publication of seed lists these were called Latin : Indices Seminae in the 18th century.

This was a means of transferring both plants and information between botanical gardens. This system continues today, although the possibility of genetic piracy and the transmission of invasive species has received greater attention in recent times.

The International Association of Botanic Gardens [10] was formed in as a worldwide organisation affiliated to the International Union of Biological Sciences. More recently, coordination has also been provided by Botanic Gardens Conservation International BGCI , which has the mission "To mobilise botanic gardens and engage partners in securing plant diversity for the well-being of people and the planet".

Communication also happens regionally. The history of botanical gardens is closely linked to the history of botany itself. The botanical gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries were medicinal gardens, but the idea of a botanical garden changed to encompass displays of the beautiful, strange, new and sometimes economically important plant trophies being returned from the European colonies and other distant lands. Then, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the trend was towards a combination of specialist and eclectic collections demonstrating many aspects of both horticulture and botany.

The idea of "scientific" gardens used specifically for the study of plants dates back to antiquity. Near-eastern royal gardens set aside for economic use or display and containing at least some plants gained by special collecting trips or military campaigns abroad, are known from the second millennium BCE in ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Crete , Mexico and China.

Early medieval gardens in Islamic Spain resembled botanic gardens of the future, an example being the 11th-century Huerta del Ray garden of physician and author Ibn Wafid — CE in Toledo.

This was later taken over by garden chronicler Ibn Bassal fl. Ibn Bassal then founded a garden in Seville, most of its plants being collected on a botanical expedition that included Morocco, Persia, Sicily, and Egypt. The medical school of Montpelier was also founded by Spanish Arab physicians, and by CE, it included a physic garden, but the site was not given botanic garden status untilBotanical gardens, in the modern sense, developed from physic gardens , whose main purpose was to cultivate herbs for medical use as well as research and experimentation.

Such gardens have a long history. In Europe, for example, Aristotle BCE — BCE is said to have had a physic garden in the Lyceum at Athens, which was used for educational purposes and for the study of botany, and this was inherited, or possibly set up, by his pupil Theophrastus , the "Father of Botany". Though these ancient gardens shared some of the characteristics of present-day botanical gardens, the forerunners of modern botanical gardens are generally regarded as being the medieval monastic physic gardens that originated after the decline of the Roman Empire at the time of Emperor Charlemagne — CE.

These gardens were probably given impetus when Charlemagne issued a capitulary , the Capitulary de Villis, which listed 73 herbs to be used in the physic gardens of his dominions.

Many of these were found in British gardens even though they only occurred naturally in continental Europe, demonstrating earlier plant introduction. In the 17th century, botanical gardens began their contribution to a deeper scientific curiosity about plants. If a botanical garden is defined by its scientific or academic connection, then the first true botanical gardens were established with the revival of learning that occurred in the European Renaissance.

These were secular gardens attached to universities and medical schools, used as resources for teaching and research. The superintendents of these gardens were often professors of botany with international reputations, a factor that probably contributed to the creation of botany as an independent discipline rather than a descriptive adjunct to medicine.

Student education was no doubt stimulated by the relatively recent advent of printing and the publication of the first herbals. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the first plants were being imported to these major Western European gardens from Eastern Europe and nearby Asia which provided many bulbs , and these found a place in the new gardens, where they could be conveniently studied by the plant experts of the day. For example, Asian introductions were described by Carolus Clusius — , who was director, in turn, of the Botanical Garden of the University of Vienna and Hortus Botanicus Leiden.

Many plants were being collected from the Near East , especially bulbous plants from Turkey. Clusius laid the foundations of Dutch tulip breeding and the bulb industry, and he helped create one of the earliest formal botanical gardens of Europe at Leyden where his detailed planting lists have made it possible to recreate this garden near its original site. The hortus medicus of Leyden in was a perfect square divided into quarters for the four continents, but by , though, it was a rambling system of beds, struggling to contain the novelties rushing in, [33] and it became better known as the hortus academicus.

His Exoticorum libri decem is an important survey of exotic plants and animals that is still consulted today. In the mid to late 17th century, the Paris Jardin des Plantes was a centre of interest with the greatest number of new introductions to attract the public.

The Chelsea garden had heated greenhouses , and in appointed Philip Miller — as head gardener. He had a wide influence on both botany and horticulture, as plants poured into it from around the world. The garden's golden age came in the 18th century, when it became the world's most richly stocked botanical garden. Its seed-exchange programme was established in and still continues today. With the increase in maritime trade , ever more plants were being brought back to Europe as trophies from distant lands, and these were triumphantly displayed in the private estates of the wealthy, in commercial nurseries , and in the public botanical gardens.

Heated conservatories called " orangeries ", such as the one at Kew, became a feature of many botanical gardens. The 18th century was marked by introductions from the Cape of South Africa — including ericas , geraniums , pelargoniums , succulents, and proteaceous plants — while the Dutch trade with the Dutch East Indies resulted in a golden era for the Leiden and Amsterdam botanical gardens and a boom in the construction of conservatories.

The Royal Gardens at Kew were founded in , initially as part of the Royal Garden set aside as a physic garden. William Aiton — , the first curator, was taught by garden chronicler Philip Miller of the Chelsea Physic Garden whose son Charles became first curator of the original Cambridge Botanic GardenFrom the s, following the example of the French and Spanish , amateur collectors were supplemented by official horticultural and botanical plant hunters.

At this time, British horticulturalists were importing many woody plants from Britain's colonies in North America , and the popularity of horticulture had increased enormously, encouraged by the horticultural and botanical collecting expeditions overseas fostered by the directorship of Sir William Jackson Hooker and his keen interest in economic botany. In , John Bartram founded Bartram's Garden in Philadelphia , one of the continent's first botanical gardens.

The garden is now managed as a historical site that includes a few original and many modern specimens as well as extensive archives and restored historical farm buildings. The large number of plants needing description were often listed in garden catalogues; and at this time Carl Linnaeus established the system of binomial nomenclature which greatly facilitated the listing process. Names of plants were authenticated by dried plant specimens mounted on card a hortus siccus or garden of dried plants that were stored in buildings called herbaria , these taxonomic research institutions being frequently associated with the botanical gardens, many of which by then had "order beds" to display the classification systems being developed by botanists in the gardens' museums and herbaria.

Botanical gardens had now become scientific collections, as botanists published their descriptions of the new exotic plants, and these were also recorded for posterity in detail by superb botanical illustrations. In this century, botanical gardens effectively dropped their medicinal function in favour of scientific and aesthetic priorities, and the term "botanic garden" came to be more closely associated with the herbarium, library and later laboratories housed there than with the living collections — on which little research was undertaken.

The late 18th and early 19th centuries were marked by the establishment of tropical botanical gardens as a tool of colonial expansion for trade and commerce and, secondarily, science mainly by the British and Dutch, in India , South-east Asia and the Caribbean. There are currently about tropical botanical gardens with a concentration in southern and south-eastern Asia. These had a profound effect on the economy of the countries, especially in relation to the foods and medicines introduced.

The importation of rubber trees to the Singapore Botanic Garden initiated the important rubber industry of the Malay Peninsula. At this time also, teak and tea were introduced to India and breadfruit , pepper and starfruit to the Caribbean. Included in the charter of these gardens was the investigation of the local flora for its economic potential to both the colonists and the local people.

Many crop plants were introduced by or through these gardens — often in association with European botanical gardens such as Kew or Amsterdam — and included cloves , tea , coffee , breadfruit, cinchona , sugar , cotton , palm oil and Theobroma cacao for chocolate. The first botanical gardens in Australia were founded early in the 19th century. These were established essentially as colonial gardens of economic botany and acclimatisation.

The botanical garden of Quito is a park, a botanical garden, an arboretum and greenhouses of 18, square meters that is planned to increase, maintain the plants of the country Ecuador is among the 17 richest countries in the world in the native species, a study on this matter.

The Ecuadorian flora classified, determines the existence of 17, species. The Orman Garden , one of the most famous botanical gardens in Egypt , is located at Giza , in Cairo , and dates back toThe oldest botanical garden in South Africa is the Durban Botanic Gardens which has been located on the same site sinceThe Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden , established in , has a site dating toStellenbosch University Botanical Garden is the oldest university botanical garden in South Africa, and was established inThe first botanical garden in the United States , Bartram's Garden , was founded in near Philadelphia , and in the same year, the Linnaean Botanic Garden at Philadelphia itself.

In , the Missouri Botanical Garden was founded at St Louis ; it is now one of the world's leading gardens specializing in tropical plants. US tax code provides for a substantial benefit to botanical gardens, this has led to a large number of entities declaring their campuses a botanical garden with little regard for veracity. Russia has more botanical gardens than any other country. These gardens are notable for their structures that include sculptures, pavilions , bandstands , memorials, shadehouses , tea houses and such.

Among the smaller gardens within Russia, one that is increasingly gaining prominence, is the Botanical Garden of Tver State University , — the northernmost botanical Garden with an exhibition of steppe plants, only one of its kind in the Upper Volga. Ukraine has about 30 botanical gardens. The most famous from them with well-respected collections are Nikitsky Botanical Garden , Yalta , founded in , M. A large number of civic or municipal botanical gardens were founded in the 19th and 20th centuries.


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While not poisonous, amaranth leaves do contain oxalic acid and may contain large amounts of nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soil. The rarer white form of the species Pontederia cordata. Planting native shrubs is a great way of revegetating vacant land, and quickly provide a mini ecosystem which attracts birds and wildlife to your garden. Roots were leached of toxins for With Tucker Bush edible natives, you can enjoy a backyard full of unique and delicious bush tucker fruits, roots, nuts, seeds and leaves from plants naturally adapted to our climate and soil. If you live in our local area in Melbourne, which we have classified as the 15 suburbs which surround our Hoppers Crossing nursery, we charge a set price for our delivery service. Indigenous Americans used this plant in ceremonies and drank tea made from the leaves to treat congestion and colds. Bloodroot is a natural dye, is hot and spicy, slow growing and turns your tongue black; it can be used in salads and on top of pizzas.

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