What garden plants absorb lead and heavy metals
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Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cultivated in home gardens in the Eastern Cape. Callistus Bvenura; Anthony Jide Afolayan. Correspondence to. The accumulation of some essential copper, manganese and zinc and toxic metals lead and cadmium in cultivated vegetables - Brassica oleracea cabbage , Daucus carota carrot , Allium cepa onion , Spinacia oleracea spinach and Solanum lycopersicum tomato - was examined.
The vegetables were locally cultivated in home gardens in Alice, a small town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Samples of these vegetables were randomly collected from residential areas, dried, digested and analysed for the heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.
The concentrations of heavy metals in the vegetables were in the range of 0. Lead was undetectable in all the samples. Results of analysis of soils from the area revealed that cadmium in soil was in the range of 0.
The concentration of manganese was the highest of all the metals, ranging betweenHowever, neither the soils nor the vegetables were consistently found to pose a risk to human health. The ever-growing global concern over the release and subsequent deposition of heavy metals in soils cannot be overemphasised. In , Alloway 1 propounded that anthropogenic activities, such as mining, agriculture and industry, tend to release heavy metals into the soil, water and atmosphere; hence the release of heavy metals has often been linked with soils in urban areas, usually near industrial sites and agricultural lands.
While justification for research has been fuelled by well-known sources of contamination, like industrial sites, automobiles in big towns and cities and phosphate fertilisers in agricultural lands, little is known regarding heavy metal contamination in home gardens, especially in rural areas and small towns. Less attention has been focused on the possible accumulation of heavy metals in small home gardens where most families in rural areas and small towns cultivate various crops to sell to supplement their incomes, as well as to eat to fortify their diets.
Both organic and inorganic fertilisers, as well as agrochemicals, are applied in some of these gardens. In , Zurera et al.
In , Mortvedt 3 suggested that organic and inorganic fertilisers were a source of heavy metals and, more recently, Kabata-Pendias 4 suggested agrochemicals.
Some authors have suggested that paints containing heavy metals are often washed off the walls by rain and are thus an added source of heavy metals in gardens. The majority of the heavy metals in feeds consumed by livestock is excreted in the faeces or urine and will be present in manure that is subsequently applied to the land, leading to the uptake of heavy metals by plants, through various processes.
Alice is a small town in a predominantly rural area in South Africa. Preliminary surveys have shown that some inhabitants of Alice, who have home gardens, improve the fertility of their gardens by adding compost or animal manure obtained from cattle, goats, chicken and pigs, whilst others apply inorganic fertilisers.
Some homes also have cattle kraals and pigsties near their gardens, thereby providing a ready and steady source of manure. Agrochemicals are also occasionally used in some gardens to combat pests and diseases. Some of the homes and gardens are located close to roads. Automobiles can also be a source of heavy metal contamination. The possibility of heavy metal contamination in vegetables in home gardens in Alice, a small town in a predominantly rural area in South Africa, was investigated.
Although some of these are essential, all five of these heavy metals are toxic to humans, even at relatively low levels. Leafy vegetables reportedly accumulate higher amounts of heavy metals because they absorb these metals into their leaves. Materials and methods. The town is about 20 km to the east of Fort Beaufort in the Nkonkobe Municipality. These areas are located on the upper hilly slopes where the soils are shallow and of low cropping potential. Van Averbeke and Marais 18 found that the parent material of Alice consists mainly of mudstone and dolerite, which are made up of fine sand and silt but contain significant amounts of clay.
According to Van Averbeke and Marais 18 , the sand fraction in the lower slopes consists of quartz and lesser amounts of plagioclase rock fragments, iron and manganese oxides. The area is generally semi-arid, as observed by Marais and Brutsch 19 , with a mean annual rainfall of approximately mm. In summer, mean daily temperatures are approximatelySample collection and preparation.
The procedure for sample collection and preparation described by Okalebo et al. Five types of vegetables were bought from home gardens in three residential areas in Alice: Ntselamanzi, Golf Course and Happy Rest. Each vegetable was collected from four different gardens per sampling site. The vegetables were harvested from each corner of the plots and also from the middle of the plots.
Table 1 shows the number of samples that were collected from each of the three sites. The number of samples of each vegetable collected depended on the availability of the vegetable per sampling site. Samples from each site were combined to make a composite sample of each vegetable per site.
The vegetables were washed first with tap water and then with deionised water to remove any possible foliar contaminants, such as pesticides, fertilisers, dust or mud.
The vegetables were then cut into small pieces using a stainless steel knife and oven dried to remove moisture. The dried tissue was stored in a moisture-free atmosphere prior to further processing.
The samples were then ground using a ceramic mortar and pestle to reduce the dried material to a suitable size for digestion and analysis. Soil samples were collected from the same locations as the vegetables. Soil samples from the same site were mixed to form a composite sample; these samples were air dried to remove moisture, after which they were sieved through a 2-mm sieve. Digestion and analysis.
The method described by Okalebo et al. Selenium powder, sulphuric acid and salicylic acid were the reagents used for digestion. The finely ground material was divided into samples of 0. A volume of 2. After removal from the digester, the tubes were allowed to cool and three successive portions of 1 mL hydrogen peroxide were added, allowing at least 10 s between additions because of the volatility of the reaction.
The tubes were allowed to cool to room temperature before their contents were transferred to mL volumetric flasks and deionised water was added to attain volumes of 50 mL. Standards were prepared for all the elements. The suspension was mixed using a reciprocating shaker for 1 h and filtered using Whatman filter paper number , after which the sample was analysed for heavy metals using the ICP OES.
Statistical analysis. Means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test. Results and discussion. Heavy metals in soils. All concentrations were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The mean concentration of Pb in the soil was 9. This concentration was higher than values reported for Saudi Arabia, 23 where a range of between 0. The mean concentration of Cd in the soil was 0. The Cd composition of the soil in Alice is similar to that reported by others around the world.
A study done in Harare, Zimbabwe 25 revealed that while Cd ranged between 0. In Saudi Arabia, 23 it was observed that Cd ranged between 0. The global average concentration of Cd in unpolluted soils is between 0.
The mean concentration of Zn in the soil wasThis concentration compares well with values reported from other countries, such as Zimbabwe 25 and South China, 24 but is higher than those reported from Saudi Arabia 23 and India.
The mean concentration of Cu in the soil was 5. Origin of heavy metals in the soil. The parent material of soils in Alice consists of igneous rocks which are rich in iron Fe and Mn oxides, 18 which may be a major contributing factor in the abundance of Mn in the soil.
The area is also in a semi-arid region and Mn is known to be abundant in such regions. It can therefore be concluded that the concentration of Cd in the soils can be attributed largely to the parent material of the soil. By comparing the expected concentration of Zn in unpolluted soils with that obtained in the soils in Alice, one can conclude that the Zn in the soils in Alice is most likely of geological origin, although organic waste, especially from livestock, phosphate fertilisers and other minor contaminants, may also have contributed.
The low levels of Cu in Alice home gardens can be largely attributed to the parent material of the soil and, to a lesser extent, the use of pesticides, herbicides, organic and inorganic fertilisers, and crop residues. Heavy metals in vegetables.
The total concentrations of heavy metals in the cabbage, carrot, onion, spinach and tomato samples from Happy Rest, Golf Course and Ntselamanzi are shown in Table 3. The results pertaining to Pb are omitted because Pb was below the instrumental detection limit in all vegetable samples from all three sites. However, because no permissible limits were available for Mn, levels suggested by Kabata-Pendias 4 were used for Mn and it was found that cabbage obtained from Happy Rest, as well as spinach harvested from Happy Rest and Ntselamanzi, contained phytotoxic levels of Mn.
The mean concentrations of heavy metals in cabbage decreased in the order of MnThe mean concentrations of heavy metals in carrots from all three sites decreased in the order of: MnAlexander et al.
The order of Zn, Cu and Cd reported by them is as for that observed in this study. The concentration of Cd in carrots was consistently high in all three sites, compared with the concentrations of Cd in the other vegetables. However, the highest mean concentration of Cd was found in spinach. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in spinach decreased in the order of: MnAn order similar to the one observed in Alice was observed in the United Kingdom 29 : Intawongse and Dean 30 reported that the uptake of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn by plants corresponded to an increasing level of soil contamination, while the uptake of Pb was low.
They further reported that spinach accumulated a high content of Mn and Zn, but low levels of Cu and Pb; these results are not dissimilar to those obtained in this study. Kudirat and Funmilayo 32 also found that levels of Cd and Zn in a leafy vegetable sold in 10 markets in Lagos, Nigeria were below the maximum permissible limits according to Nigerian standards. Onions generally accumulated the lowest concentrations of the heavy metals analysed. The descending order of mean concentrations of heavy metals in onions was: ZnThe concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables from Alice were higher than those obtained in Saudi Arabia except for Cd.
Audu and Lawal 34 recorded concentrations in onions of 0. Their results are similar to those obtained from Alice for Cu and Pb, although their concentrations of Zn and Mn were much lower.
Home » Resources » Soil » Lead. Lead is an element that is lumped with a group called heavy metals because of their similar chemical characteristics. Copper and zinc are essential in very small amounts for normal health but in larger amounts become toxic for both plants and animals. Most of the heavy metals are just plain toxic because they interfere with the biochemical activity in cells. However, human habitation and activity tends to elevate the concentrations of these metals.
In general, plants do not absorb lead into their tissues. Lead particles can settle on vegetables grown in lead-contaminated soil or in areas.
Meta-analysis of soil mercury accumulation by vegetables
So many homes and parks have crab apple trees and so few people put these tasty, healthy little fruits to use. Here's a recipe to change If you have a garden, chances are that you've been pulling up one of the best greens in it for years. Lambsquarters are a very common A few years ago, we purchased a little sour cherry tree from some big box store because it was on clearance at the end of the garden Yes, even in the midst of a pandemic actually, especially because of the pandemic , our family still foraged quite a number of wild foods Life is too short to eat bad gluten-free pizza, and there's no reason you have to.
Seven Plants, Weeds and Flowers That Naturally Remove Lead from Your Property
It is a dangerous neurotoxin to humans and animals. Small amounts of lead are naturally present in the soil and in vegetables, and should not cause alarm. This is generally in the range of 15 to 40 parts lead to one million parts soil ppm. Through the addition of industrial lead pollutants, such as lead particles and chips from lead-based paints, automobile emissions from leaded fuels, and other industrial sources, lead levels in contaminated soil range from ppm to over 3, ppm. Soils near a busy road are typically 30 -2, ppm higher than soils in a natural area.
Urban gardening is everywhere nowadays.
A Review on Heavy Metals (As, Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation
Urban agriculture is increasingly popular for social and economical benefits. However, edible crops grown in cities can be contaminated by airborne pollutants, thus leading to serious health risks. Therefore, we need a better understanding of contamination risks of urban cultivation to define safe practices. Here we study heavy metal risk in horticultural crops grown in urban gardens of Bologna, Italy. We investigated the effect of proximity to different pollution sources such as roads and railways, and the effect of the growing system used, that is soil versus soilless cultivation.
Lead contamination in garden soils
Download Resource. Heavy metals are a class of elements that include lead, copper, arsenic, and cadmium, and can be toxic to humans and plants if ingested in high enough quantities. Soils have often been the landing spot for heavy metals, chemicals, and wastes as byproducts of industrial and agricultural pollutants. Many of these metals are present in soils naturally, usually in small amounts, although the natural level may vary. Heavy metals are more of a concern in urban areas, especially when near sites historically used for industry. Certain contaminants, when present in high amounts, can cause detrimental effects on humans, animals, and plants. With proper care and treatment, contaminated soils can be remediated and used safely.
Several of the fruit trees showed uptake of lead in the leaf samples, and analyze the heavy metal and arsenic uptake in food plants being grown at the.
Landscaping and gardening in arsenic and lead contaminated soil
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In some cases, gardeners may be able to reduce the concentration of metals in their garden. If you decide to try the strategies listed below, you should still retest your soil yearly until repeat results show the soil is at a level you consider safe. Depending on where your levels start off and which steps you choose to take, it may take years for the soil to get to the level you want. If your contamination is extensive, you may want to contact an environmental engineering firm to professionally assess the situation. Whichever strategies your choose, be it raised beds or remediation, continue to test your soil regularly.
There are a number of good reasons to have your soil tested before planting a garden. The results can give you an idea of the nutrients your soil contains and its level of acidity.
Do you live in an area impacted by contaminated soil? Don't worry — you can still enjoy gardening, landscaping, and playing in the dirt. Whether you like to grow your own produce or are setting up a play area for your children, follow these simple steps to protect yourself and your family. Arsenic and lead are not absorbed very well through the skin.